Temperate Cyclones – Geography Notes PDF in English & Hindi for UPSC and Other Competitive Exams

Temperate Cyclones: Temperate cyclones, often referred to as mid-latitude cyclones or extratropical cyclones, are large-scale, low-pressure weather systems that occur in the mid-latitudes of Earth, typically between 30 and 60 degrees North and South of the equator. These cyclones are responsible for a significant portion of the weather patterns in regions such as North America, Europe, and Asia

Temperate Cyclones

Characteristics of Temperate Cyclones

Formation and Structure:

  1. Frontal Boundaries: Temperate cyclones typically form along frontal boundaries, where contrasting air masses meet. The collision of cold, polar air with warm, moist, tropical air is a common trigger for cyclone development.
  2. Low-Pressure Centers: A temperate cyclone is characterized by a well-defined low-pressure center, typically with an associated warm front (advancing warm air) and a cold front (advancing cold air).
  3. Counter-Clockwise Rotation (Northern Hemisphere): In the Northern Hemisphere, temperate cyclones exhibit counterclockwise rotation around their low-pressure centers. In the Southern Hemisphere, they rotate clockwise.

Life Cycle:

  1. Cyclogenesis: The initial stage of a temperate cyclone’s life cycle is cyclogenesis, during which a disturbance or front initiates the formation of a low-pressure system. This typically occurs in the vicinity of a jet stream.
  2. Mature Stage: As the cyclone intensifies, the warm and cold fronts become more defined, creating a wider temperature contrast. This stage is associated with significant precipitation, cloud cover, and wind.
  3. Occlusion: Eventually, the cold front catches up with the warm front, leading to the occlusion of the cyclone. This marks the declining stage of the system.


  1. Precipitation: Temperate cyclones are associated with a wide range of weather conditions, including rain, snow, sleet, and freezing rain. The type of precipitation depends on the temperature gradients within the cyclone.
  2. Wind Patterns: The wind patterns around a temperate cyclone are complex. Near the center, winds are generally light, but they increase in intensity toward the cold front, where there may be strong winds and severe weather.
  3. Cloud Formation: Extensive cloud cover, including cirrus, cumulus, and stratus clouds, is common in temperate cyclones. These clouds can lead to overcast skies and reduced visibility.
  4. Temperature Contrasts: The temperature contrasts between the warm and cold air masses within the cyclone are essential for its development and the associated weather.
  5. Movement: Temperate cyclones typically move from west to east, following the prevailing westerly wind patterns in the mid-latitudes. They can also follow the path of the polar jet stream.


  1. Weather Events: Temperate cyclones are associated with various weather events, including rainstorms, snowstorms, thunderstorms, and the potential for severe weather, such as tornadoes.
  2. Precipitation: These systems can bring significant precipitation, contributing to both beneficial rainfall and flooding, depending on the intensity and duration of the storm.
  3. Temperature Changes: The passage of a cyclone’s fronts can lead to significant temperature changes, as warm air is replaced by cold air.
  4. Transport of Air Masses: Temperate cyclones play a role in transporting air masses across large geographic areas, influencing regional climates and weather conditions.
  5. Storm Systems: Some of the most intense storm systems and blizzards are associated with temperate cyclones.

In summary, temperate cyclones are complex weather systems that result from the interaction of contrasting air masses and frontal boundaries. They are responsible for a wide range of weather conditions, and their movement and impacts are a significant factor in mid-latitude weather patterns.

Download Temperate Cyclones Notes PDF in Hindi

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By Team Learning Mantras