Assisted Reproductive Technologies: ART includes all fertility treatments in which either eggs or embryos are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman. They do not include treatments in which only sperm are handled (i.e., intrauterine—or artificial—insemination) or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved.
Types of Assisted Reproductive Technologies
- In vitro fertilization (IVF): This involves in-vitro fertilization where the sperms meet the egg outside the body of a female. The zygote, hence produced, is then transferred in the uterus or fallopian tube of a normal female. The babies produced from this method are known as test tube babies.
- Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): It is a technique that involves the transfer of gamete (ovum) from a donor into the fallopian tube of the recipient female who is unable to produce eggs, but has the ability to conceive and can provide right conditions for the development of an embryo.
- Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): It is a method of injecting sperm directly into the ovum to form an embryo in laboratory.
- Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT): It also known as tubal embryo transfer is somewhat similar to IVF wherein fertilization takes place outside the body. The young embryo is then inserted into the fallopian tube and not the uterus.
- Artificial insemination: In this the donor is involved which donates its sperms. These sperms are transferred to the female vagina.
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