The Fruit – Class 11 | Chapter – 5 | Short Notes Series PDF

The Fruit: Fruits are seed-bearing structures. It develops from a ripe ovary. They are a rich source of vitamins, minerals and fibres. Grapes, bananas, papaya, watermelon are some of the fruits consumed by humans. They are the main source of a balanced diet.


Parts of The Fruit

A fruit comprises the following parts:

  • Pericarp
  • Seeds

Types of The Fruit

Based on the number of ovaries and the number of flowers involved in the fruit formation, fruits are classified into three major groups namely:

Simple Fruits

These fruits develop from a single matured ovary in a single flower. Apple, banana, cherry pear, plum, tomato are few examples of simple fruits. The simple fruits are classified into the following categories:

  • Drupes: These are also known as stone fruits since it contains a very hard seed inside the simple fruits. For eg., plum, cherry, peach.
  • Berries: These type of fruits have a single seed in the center and are very juicy. For eg., grapes, blueberries.
  • Pomes: Such fruits bloom from trees. For eg., apple, papaya
  • Hesperidium and Pepos: They are slightly similar to the berries and include fruits such as watermelon, citrus fruits.

Aggregate Fruits

These fruits develop from a number of matured ovaries formed in a single flower. Individual ovaries are called “fruitlets.” Blackberry, raspberry, strawberry are few examples of aggregate fruits.

Composite Fruits

These fruits develop from a complete inflorescence. these are also known as multiple fruits. Composite fruits are of two types:

  • Sorosis: These are found in mulberry, jackfruits and pineapple. They develop from catkin, spikes and spadix type of inflorescence.
  • Syconus: This develops from hypanthodium type of inflorescence.

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By Team Learning Mantras