Subkingdoms of Monera – Class 11 | Chapter – 2 | Short Notes Series PDF

Subkingdoms of Monera: kingdom Monera is classified into three sub-kingdoms- Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Cyanobacteria. Kingdom Monera belongs to the prokaryote family. The organisms belonging to this kingdom do not contain a true nucleus. These are the oldest known microorganisms on earth. Their DNA is not enclosed within the nucleus.

Subkingdoms of Monera

Subkingdoms of Monera


  • These are the most ancient bacteria found in the most extreme habitats such as salty area (halophiles), hot springs (thermoacidophiles) and marshy areas (methanogens).

  • The structure of the cell wall is different from that of the other bacteria which helps them survive in extreme conditions.

  • The mode of nutrition is autotrophic.

  • The nucleotide sequences of its t-RNA and r-RNA is unique.


  • Eubacteria are also known as “true bacteria”.

  • The cell wall is rigid and made up of peptidoglycans.

  • It moves with the help of flagella.

  • A few bacteria contain short appendages on the cell surface, known as pili which help the bacteria during sexual reproduction. Pili also helps a pathogen to attach to the host.

  • They are divided into two categories; gram-positive and gram-negative, depending upon the nature of the cell wall and the stain they take.

  • Rhizobium and Clostridium are two eubacteria.


  • These are also known as blue-green algae.

  • These bacteria are photosynthetic in nature.

  • They contain chlorophyll, carotenoids and phycobilins.

  • They are found in the aquatic region.

  • Some of these even fix atmospheric nitrogen.

  • Nostoc, Anabaena, Spirulina are some cyanobacteria.

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