Ocean Floor And Its Features – Geography Notes PDF in English & Hindi for UPSC and Other Competitive Exams

Ocean Floor And Its Features: The ocean floor is a dynamic and fascinating realm, influenced by geological processes, ocean currents, and marine life. It plays a crucial role in Earth’s ecosystems, climate regulation, and resource availability. Scientists continue to explore and study the ocean floor to better understand its complexity and the role it plays in the overall health of the planet.

Ocean Floor And Its Features

The ocean floor is the vast expanse of the Earth’s surface that lies beneath the world’s oceans and seas. It is a complex and dynamic environment with diverse geological features. Here are some of the key features of the ocean floor:

  • Continental Shelf: The continental shelf is the gently sloping, submerged portion of a continent that extends from the shoreline to the continental slope. It is relatively shallow and rich in marine life. Many coastal regions are located on continental shelves.
  • Continental Slope: The continental slope is a steeper region that marks the boundary between the continental shelf and the deep ocean basin. It is a transition zone between the continental and oceanic crust.
  • Continental Rise: The continental rise is a more gradual incline at the base of the continental slope. It is formed by the accumulation of sediments transported by underwater currents.
  • Abyssal Plain: Abyssal plains are vast, flat, and featureless regions of the ocean floor that lie at depths ranging from 13,000 to 20,000 feet (4,000 to 6,000 meters). They are covered with fine sediments and are home to a variety of marine life.
  • Mid-Ocean Ridges: Mid-ocean ridges are long undersea mountain ranges that run along the ocean floor. These ridges are formed by tectonic plate boundaries where new oceanic crust is created as magma rises from the Earth’s mantle.
  • Ocean Trenches: Ocean trenches are deep, elongated depressions in the ocean floor. They are associated with subduction zones where one tectonic plate is pushed beneath another. The Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean is the deepest known trench on Earth.
  • Seamounts: Seamounts are underwater mountains that do not reach the ocean’s surface. They can be volcanic in origin and are often teeming with marine life.
  • Guyots: Guyots, also known as tablemounts, are flat-topped seamounts. They were once volcanic islands that subsided below the ocean surface and eroded over time.
  • Hydrothermal Vent Systems: Hydrothermal vent systems are found along mid-ocean ridges and are home to unique ecosystems. They result from the interaction of seawater with hot, mineral-rich fluids emerging from the Earth’s interior.
  • Island Arcs: Island arcs are chains of volcanic islands that form along the boundary of two converging tectonic plates. The Aleutian Islands in the North Pacific are an example of an island arc.
  • Mangrove Forests: In some coastal regions, mangrove forests grow along the ocean floor. These salt-tolerant trees and shrubs provide vital habitat for various marine species and help protect coastlines.
  • Coral Reefs: Coral reefs are underwater structures formed by the calcium carbonate skeletons of tiny coral polyps. They are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems in the world and are found in warm, shallow waters.

Download Ocean Floor And Its Features Notes PDF in Hindi

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By Team Learning Mantras