Nervous System Short Notes PDF: Find below the important notes for the chapter, Nervous System as per the NEET Biology syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Important notes for NEET Biology- Nervous System Short Notes PDF cover all the important topics and concepts useful for the exam.
Nervous System Short Notes PDF
The nervous system is the major controlling, regulatory, and communicating system in the body. It is the center of all mental activity including thought, learning, and memory. Together with the endocrine system, the nervous system is responsible for regulating and maintaining homeostasis. Through its receptors, the nervous system keeps us in touch with our environment, both external and internal.
The human nervous system consists of two parts:
- Central Nervous System (consists of the brain and spinal cord)
- Peripheral Nervous System (includes all the nerves of the body)
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord are the organs of the central nervous system. Because they are so vitally important, the brain and spinal cord, located in the dorsal body cavity, are encased in bone for protection. The brain is in the cranial vault, and the spinal cord is in the vertebral canal of the vertebral column. Although considered to be two separate organs, the brain and spinal cord are continuous at the foramen magnum.
- Brain: The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses.
- The cortex is the outermost layer of brain cells. Thinking and voluntary movements begin in the cortex.
- The brain stem is between the spinal cord and the rest of the brain. Basic functions like breathing and sleep are controlled here.
- The basal ganglia are a cluster of structures in the center of the brain. The basal ganglia coordinate messages between multiple other brain areas.
- The cerebellum is at the base and the back of the brain. The cerebellum is responsible for coordination and balance.
- The frontal lobes are responsible for problem solving and judgment and motor function.
- The parietal lobes manage sensation, handwriting, and body position.
- The temporal lobes are involved with memory and hearing.
- The occipital lobes contain the brain’s visual processing system.
- Spinal Cord: The spinal cord is a cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers and associated tissues enclosed within the spine and connect all parts of the body to the brain. It begins in continuation with the medulla and extends downwards. It is enclosed in a bony cage called vertebral column and surrounded by membranes called meninges. The spinal cord is concerned with spinal reflex actions and the conduction of nerve impulses to and from the brain.
Peripheral Nervous System
The organs of the peripheral nervous system are the nerves and ganglia. Nerves are bundles of nerve fibers, much like muscles are bundles of muscle fibers. Cranial nerves and spinal nerves extend from the central nervous system to peripheral organs such as muscles and glands. Ganglia are collections, or small knots, of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
- Nerve: A nerve contains bundles of nerve fibers, either axons or dendrites, surrounded by connective tissue. Sensory nerves contain only afferent fibers, long dendrites of sensory neurons. Motor nerves have only efferent fibers, long axons of motor neurons. Mixed nerves contain both types of fibers. Nerves are thread-like structures that emerge from the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for carrying messages to all the parts of the body. There are three types of nerves. Some of these neurons can fire signals at speeds of over 119 m/s or above 428 km/h.
- Cranial Nerves: Cranial nerves begin from the brain as these nerves carry impulses to start from the central nervous system. Certain cranial nerves belong to the group of mixed nerves while certain ones fall under sensory nerves. Spinal nerves originate from the spinal cord. All the spinal nerves carry impulses to and from the central nervous system and these are part of mixed nerves.
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