Natural Vegetation in India – Geography Notes PDF in English & Hindi for UPSC and Other Competitive Exams

Natural Vegetation in India: India’s natural vegetation is incredibly diverse and has a significant impact on the country’s ecology, climate, and biodiversity. The protection and sustainable management of these vegetation types are essential for preserving India’s rich natural heritage.

Natural Vegetation in India

India’s diverse topography, climate, and ecological zones result in a wide variety of natural vegetation types across the country. Here are the main categories of natural vegetation in India:

  • Tropical Rainforests:
    • Found in the Western Ghats, the northeastern states, and parts of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
    • Characterized by evergreen trees, dense undergrowth, and high biodiversity.
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests:
    • Cover a significant part of India, including the central and southern regions.
    • Composed of both deciduous and evergreen trees.
    • Seasonal changes in rainfall lead to the shedding of leaves during the dry season.
  • Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs:
    • Predominant in arid and semi-arid regions of northwestern India (e.g., Rajasthan).
    • Vegetation consists of thorny bushes, small trees, and xerophytic plants adapted to arid conditions.
  • Montane Forests:
    • Found in the hilly and mountainous regions, such as the Himalayas, Western Ghats, and Eastern Ghats.
    • The vegetation varies with altitude, with subalpine, temperate, and alpine forests at higher elevations.
  • Mangrove Forests:
    • Located in coastal areas and estuaries, primarily in the Sundarbans delta in West Bengal and parts of the western coast.
    • Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, especially mangrove species.
    • Provide a critical breeding ground for various marine species.
  • Subtropical Broadleaf Forests:
    • Found in the northern and northwestern parts of India.
    • Characterized by broadleaf trees and include species like sal, teak, and bamboo.
  • Desert Vegetation:
    • Predominant in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan.
    • Comprises drought-resistant shrubs and hardy plants adapted to arid conditions.
  • Alpine Meadows:
    • Located in the higher reaches of the Himalayas.
    • Composed of grasses, small shrubs, and hardy alpine plants.
  • Savannas and Grasslands:
    • Scattered across different parts of India.
    • Characterized by grasses and scattered trees; some areas are used for agriculture and grazing.
  • Wetlands:
    • Include swamps, marshes, and various aquatic vegetation.
    • Major wetland regions in India include the Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan and the Loktak Lake in Manipur.
  • Coastal Sand Dunes:
    • Found along India’s coastline, especially in the western and southeastern regions.
    • Vegetation includes dune grasses, shrubs, and salt-tolerant plants.
  • Littoral and Swamp Forests:
    • Located in coastal areas of South India.
    • Consist of a mix of salt-tolerant and freshwater species.

Download Natural Vegetation in India Notes PDF in Hindi

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By Team Learning Mantras