Mesophyll cells – Class 11 | Chapter – 13 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Mesophyll cells: The mesophyll cell is a group of highly differentiated cells which make up the mesophyll layer in plant leaves. The mesophyll layer in the leaves of dicotyledonous plant species is made up two types of cells: the spongy, and the palisade. This makes the mesophyll a site of photosynthesis.

These are some of the most important characteristics.

  • Found between the upper and below epidermis
  • Leaves’ inner tissues are made up of this
  • Variation in shape 
  • Form a type of ground tissue    

Structure of Mesophyll Cells

The diagram below represents a cross-section of a dicot leaf. The structures shown include:

Structure of Mesophyll Cells

  • Cuticle: waxy coating over the epidermis
  • Upper epidermis: epidermal cells located on the upper surface of the leaf
  • Palisade parenchyma: columnar cells comprising the upper layer of the mesophyll
  • Spongy parenchyma: irregular cells forming the lower layer of the mesophyll
  • Lower epidermis: epidermal cells located on the lower surface of the leaf
  • Stomata: openings in the epidermis that facilitate gas exchange
  • Guard cells: a pair of cells that controls when the stomata open or close
  • Xylem: vascular tissue responsible for transporting water from the roots to the rest of the plant
  • Phloem: vascular tissue responsible for transporting nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of a plant
  • Vascular bundle: the combination of xylem and phloem

Origin of Mesophyll Cells

  • Mesophyll cells are the inner mesophyll tissue in a leaf’s mesophyll. These cells remake up the cortex which is made up of parenchyma cells.
  • In vascular plants, the mesophyll is a product of a group of cells called ground meristematic, which are themselves made by cells from the apical, or lateral meristem.
  • One group of stem cells is found in plants. It is located in the meristem (meristematic tissues). As such, they divide to create cells that can be differentiated to perform different functions in plants.
  • Ground meristem cells divide and differentiate to form a variety of tissues such as the cortex, pith, and pith. They produce the parenchyma mesophyll cells (palisade, spongy mesophyll) which are involved in photosynthesis.

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By Team Learning Mantras