Major Crops in India – Geography Notes PDF in English & Hindi for UPSC and Other Competitive Exams

Major Crops in India: India is one of the world’s leading agricultural nations, and it produces a wide variety of crops due to its diverse climate, topography, and agricultural practices. India’s diverse agricultural practices and climates allow for the cultivation of a wide range of crops, making it a major contributor to global food production. Agriculture remains a vital sector of the Indian economy, employing a significant portion of the population.

Some of the major crops cultivated in India include:

  • Rice: Rice is a staple food for a significant portion of the Indian population. It is grown in regions with high rainfall and is a primary crop in states like West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and Punjab.
  • Wheat: Wheat is another staple crop and is widely grown in the northern plains of India. The major wheat-producing states are Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Maize (Corn): Maize is cultivated in various parts of India and is used for human consumption, animal feed, and industrial purposes.
  • Millets: India is a significant producer of millets, including pearl millet (bajra), finger millet (ragi), and foxtail millet. These drought-resistant crops are essential in regions with limited water resources.
  • Sorghum (Jowar): Sorghum is grown in both kharif (rainy season) and rabi (winter) seasons and is a crucial crop for dryland farming.
  • Pulses: India is a major producer of pulses like chickpeas (chana), pigeon peas (arhar), lentils (masoor), and mung beans (moong). Pulses are a significant source of protein in the Indian diet.
  • Oilseeds: Oilseeds include crops like groundnut (peanut), soybean, mustard, and sunflower. India is a large consumer and producer of edible oils.
  • Cotton: Cotton is a major cash crop and is used in the textile industry. States like Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh are known for cotton cultivation.
  • Sugarcane: Sugarcane is grown for sugar production and is a critical crop in states like Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Karnataka.
  • Tea: India is one of the world’s largest tea producers, with Assam, Darjeeling, and Nilgiri regions being famous for their tea estates.
  • Coffee: Coffee is grown in the southern states of Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.
  • Spices: India is renowned for its spices, including black pepper, cardamom, turmeric, and red chili. Spices are grown in various regions across the country.
  • Fruits: India produces a wide variety of fruits, including mangoes, bananas, apples, oranges, and grapes. The country is one of the largest producers of mangoes in the world.
  • Vegetables: Various vegetables, such as potatoes, onions, tomatoes, and cauliflower, are cultivated throughout the year in different regions.
  • Cashew and Almonds: Cashew and almonds are grown in parts of India, with cashew production concentrated in states like Goa and Kerala.
  • Jute: Jute is grown in West Bengal, Bihar, and Assam and is primarily used for making sacks and bags.

Major Crops in India

Crops Varieties Soil type Producers
Rice (Kharif, Rabi) Aman, Sali, Afghani, Aus, Boro, Clay or Loamy soil West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, and Assam
Wheat (Rabi) Kalyan Sona, Heera and Sonalika Sandy loam, Clay loam Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, West Bengal, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra,  and Gujarat
Cotton (Kharif) Short Staple, Medium Staple, Long Staple Black soil Maharashtra,  Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, and  Punjab
Jute(Zaid) Tossa Jute and White Jute Sandy and Clay Loam West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh
Sugarcane(Kharif, Rabi) Clayey Loamy Soil, and Red Loamy Soil Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Punjab
Tea   Loamy soil acidic in nature and rich in organic matter Assam, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Meghalaya, Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka
Coffee Arabica and Robusta Well-drained forest loam Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Odisha, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland


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By Team Learning Mantras