Longitudinal Division of the Himalayas: The Himalayas, as a whole, play a crucial role in influencing the climate, weather patterns, and biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent and neighboring countries. The range also serves as the source of several major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus, which are essential for agriculture and livelihoods in the region. Additionally, the Himalayas are known for their stunning natural beauty and are a popular destination for tourism and adventure activities.
Longitudinal Division of the Himalayas
The Himalayas, one of the world’s most extensive mountain ranges, are often divided into three major longitudinal divisions based on their geographical orientation and characteristics. These divisions are as follows:
- The Western Himalayas:
- The Western Himalayas extend from the western border of India to the western part of Nepal.
- Key features of the Western Himalayas include the presence of several high mountain peaks, valleys, and deep gorges.
- Notable mountain ranges in this division include the Pir Panjal Range, Zanskar Range, and the Dhauladhar Range.
- Famous hill stations like Shimla, Manali, and Dharamshala are located in this region.
- The Central Himalayas:
- The Central Himalayas span from the western part of Nepal to the eastern part of Bhutan.
- This division includes some of the highest peaks in the world, such as Mount Everest (Sagarmatha/Chomolungma) and Kanchenjunga.
- The region is characterized by deep valleys, dense forests, and numerous rivers.
- It is home to a rich variety of flora and fauna and is a popular destination for trekkers and mountaineers.
The Eastern Himalayas:
- The Eastern Himalayas extend from the eastern part of Bhutan to the easternmost part of Arunachal Pradesh in India.
- This division is known for its lush greenery, dense forests, and high rainfall, which support a wide range of biodiversity.
- The Brahmaputra River flows through this region, and it is a critical source of water for the Indian subcontinent.
- The Eastern Himalayas are home to a variety of indigenous cultures and ethnic groups.
UPSC Previous Year Questions on Longitudinal Division of the Himalayas
Q. When you travel in the Himalayas, you will see the following: (UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination 2012)
- Deep gorges
- U-turn river courses
- Parallel mountain ranges
- Steep gradients causing land-sliding
Which of the above can be said to be the evidence for the Himalayas being young fold mountains?
- 1 and 2 only
- 1, 2 and 4 only
- 3 and 4 only
- 1, 2, 3 and 4
By Team Learning Mantras