Humayun – Medieval Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Humayun: Humayun’s life and reign were instrumental in shaping the course of Mughal history in India, and his dynasty would go on to become one of the most influential and enduring in the subcontinent.


Humayun was the second ruler of the Mughal Empire, reigning from 1530 to 1556. He was born on March 6, 1508, and was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and Maham Begum. Humayun’s reign was marked by a series of challenges and struggles, as well as periods of exile. Here are key points about Humayun:

1. Early Life: Humayun received a princely education and was groomed for leadership from a young age. He showed an interest in art, poetry, and astronomy.

2. Ascension to the Throne: After the death of his father, Babur, in 1530, Humayun ascended to the Mughal throne at the age of 22. He inherited an empire that was still in the process of consolidating its power in India.

3. Early Challenges: Humayun’s early years as emperor were marked by internal rebellions, particularly from his brothers Kamran, Askari, and Hindal, who sought to challenge his authority.

4. Conquest of India: Humayun’s most significant achievement was his invasion of the Indian subcontinent. In 1526, he led an army into northern India and defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi, at the First Battle of Panipat. This marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India.

5. Challenges and Exile: Despite initial successes, Humayun faced numerous challenges, including conflicts with regional rulers and rebellions within his own empire. He was forced into exile multiple times and sought refuge in Persia (modern-day Iran).

6. Return to Power: With the help of the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasp I, Humayun was able to assemble an army and return to India in 1555. He recaptured Delhi and Agra from the Suri dynasty.

7. Battle of Panipat (1556): Upon his return, Humayun faced another significant battle, the Battle of Panipat in 1556, against the Afghan ruler Sikandar Suri. Humayun emerged victorious, solidifying Mughal rule in North India.

8. Patron of the Arts: Humayun was known for his interest in art, culture, and literature. He patronized artists, scholars, and poets, contributing to the flourishing of Mughal culture.

9. Death and Succession: Unfortunately, Humayun’s reign was cut short. He died on January 27, 1556, just a year after reclaiming his empire. He was succeeded by his son, Akbar, who went on to become one of the greatest Mughal emperors.

10. Legacy: While Humayun’s reign was marked by challenges and temporary setbacks, his contributions to Mughal culture and the establishment of Mughal rule in India laid the foundation for the empire’s expansion and consolidation under his son, Akbar.

Download Humayun Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Humayun Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras