Humayun (1530-1556) – Medieval Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Humayun: Humayun’s reign was marked by challenges and temporary setbacks, his contributions to Mughal culture, art, and architecture, as well as his role in the early history of the Mughal Empire, make him an important figure in India’s history.


Humayun, the eldest son of Babur, was the second ruler of the Mughal Empire in India. His reign, from 1530 to 1556, was marked by a series of challenges, including internal conflicts, external threats, and periods of exile. Here are key points about Humayun and his rule:

1. Early Life: Humayun was born in Kabul in 1508 to Emperor Babur and his wife Maham Begum. He received a princely education and was groomed for leadership from a young age.

2. Accession to the Throne: After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the Mughal throne at the age of 22. He inherited an empire that was still in the process of consolidating its power in India.

3. Conflicts and Exile: Humayun’s early years as emperor were marked by internal rebellions, particularly from his brothers Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. These conflicts weakened his hold on the empire, and he was forced into exile.

4. Return to Power: Humayun spent several years in exile, seeking refuge in Persia (modern-day Iran). With the help of the Safavid ruler Shah Tahmasp I, he assembled an army and returned to India in 1555.

5. Battle of Panipat (1556): Upon his return, Humayun faced his most significant challenge in the form of the Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri, who had seized control of northern India. In the Battle of Panipat in 1556, Humayun’s forces suffered a defeat, and he was fatally injured, passing away a few days later.

6. Contribution to Mughal Empire: Despite the challenges and brief reign, Humayun’s legacy lies in laying the foundation for the Mughal Empire’s expansion and consolidation in India. He set the stage for his son Akbar to continue his efforts.

7. Patron of Arts and Learning: Humayun was known for his interest in art, culture, and literature. He patronized artists, scholars, and poets, contributing to the flourishing of Mughal culture.

8. Architecture: Although his reign was relatively short, Humayun’s era witnessed the beginning of Mughal architectural traditions in India. The construction of Humayun’s Tomb in Delhi, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is one of the most iconic examples of Mughal architecture.

9. Humayun’s Name: His original name was Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, but he is commonly referred to simply as Humayun.

10. Succession: Humayun was succeeded by his son Akbar, who went on to become one of the greatest Mughal emperors.

Download Humayun Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Humayun Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras