Halides – Class 11 | Chapter – 10 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Halides: Halides are a class of chemical compounds that contain a halogen atom (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) bonded to a metal. The halogens are in Group 17 (also known as Group VIIA) of the periodic table and are highly reactive nonmetals.

The most common halides are metal halides, which are formed when a metal reacts with a halogen. For example, sodium chloride (NaCl) is a metal halide formed by the reaction of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl).

Halides can also be organic compounds in which a halogen atom is covalently bonded to a carbon atom. These compounds are often used as solvents, pesticides, and refrigerants. Examples of organic halides include chloroform (CHCl3), which is used as an anesthetic, and Freon, which is used as a refrigerant.

Halides are important in many chemical reactions and are used in a variety of applications, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and catalysts. However, some halides can be toxic or corrosive, so they must be handled with care.

Characteristics of Halides of Alkali Metals

The alkali metals are a group of elements that include lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Halides of alkali metals are compounds formed when these elements react with halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine).

Some characteristics of halides of alkali metals are:

  1. Ionic nature: Halides of alkali metals are ionic compounds with high melting and boiling points due to the strong electrostatic attraction between the positive alkali metal ions and negative halide ions.
  2. Solubility: Halides of alkali metals are generally soluble in water and other polar solvents due to the polar nature of the ionic bond.
  3. Color: Halides of alkali metals are usually white or colorless solids.
  4. Reactivity: Halides of alkali metals are highly reactive and can easily undergo redox reactions. They can also react with water to produce alkali metal hydroxides and hydrogen halides.
  5. Hygroscopic nature: Halides of alkali metals are hygroscopic, meaning they absorb moisture from the air and can dissolve in the water vapor they absorb.
  6. High lattice energy: Halides of alkali metals have high lattice energy due to the small size and high charge density of the alkali metal cations.

Overall, halides of alkali metals have important applications in many areas of science and industry, including as catalysts, chemical reagents, and in the manufacture of semiconductors and optical materials.

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By Team Learning Mantras