Climate Vegetation and Wildlife of India – Geography Notes PDF in English & Hindi for UPSC & Other Competitive Exams

Climate Vegetation and Wildlife of India: India’s climate, vegetation, and wildlife reflect its ecological diversity and make it a significant player in global biodiversity conservation and research efforts.

Climate Vegetation and Wildlife of India

India is known for its diverse climate, rich vegetation, and varied wildlife due to its vast geographical expanse and topographical variations. Here’s an overview of the climate, vegetation, and wildlife in different regions of India:


India has a wide range of climates, from tropical in the south to alpine in the north. The country experiences four primary seasons: winter, summer, monsoon, and post-monsoon. The climate zones include:

  1. Tropical Wet: Found along the western coast and northeastern India, this region experiences high temperatures and heavy rainfall, especially during the monsoon season.
  2. Tropical Dry: Areas of western and central India have hot, dry weather during the majority of the year, with a distinct wet monsoon season.
  3. Arid: The northwestern part of India, including the Thar Desert, has an arid climate with very little rainfall.
  4. Temperate: Northern India, particularly the Himalayan region, experiences cold winters and mild summers. Snowfall occurs in the higher altitudes.
  5. Subtropical: This climate zone is found in the northern plains, including Delhi, with hot summers and cold winters.
  6. Alpine: The higher reaches of the Himalayas experience sub-zero temperatures in winter and cool summers.


India’s varied climate and geography have resulted in diverse vegetation types:

  1. Tropical Rainforests: Found in the Western Ghats and northeastern regions, these areas are lush and home to a wide variety of plant and animal species.
  2. Deciduous Forests: These forests are prevalent in central and southern India. They shed leaves in the dry season and include teak, sal, and bamboo.
  3. Thorn Forests and Scrubs: Found in arid regions like Rajasthan, these areas feature thorny vegetation, such as acacia and cacti.
  4. Tundra: Alpine vegetation like mosses, lichens, and grasses is seen in the high Himalayan regions.
  5. Mangroves: Coastal areas, especially in the Sundarbans delta, have mangrove forests that adapt to saline conditions.
  6. Desert Vegetation: The Thar Desert has drought-resistant plants like xerophytes and succulents.
  7. Grasslands: Regions like the Deccan Plateau have savannas with grasses, including elephant grass and bluebunch wheatgrass.
  8. Wetlands: India has various wetland ecosystems, including swamps, marshes, and lakes.


India is known for its rich and diverse wildlife, with numerous species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and more. Key wildlife regions include:

  1. Jim Corbett National Park: Located in Uttarakhand, it’s known for its tiger population.
  2. Ranthambore National Park: Home to Bengal tigers, it’s in Rajasthan.
  3. Kaziranga National Park: Situated in Assam, it’s famous for its one-horned rhinoceros.
  4. Sundarbans National Park: In West Bengal, it’s known for its Bengal tigers and mangrove forests.
  5. Gir Forest National Park: In Gujarat, it’s the last refuge of the Asiatic lion.
  6. Periyar Tiger Reserve: Found in Kerala, it’s known for tigers, elephants, and diverse flora.
  7. Keoladeo National Park: In Rajasthan, it’s a renowned bird sanctuary.
  8. Western and Eastern Ghats: These mountain ranges are biodiversity hotspots with numerous endemic species.

Download Climate Vegetation and Wildlife of India Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Climate Vegetation and Wildlife of India Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras