Catalysts in Industry – Class 12 | Chapter – 5 | Surface Chemistry | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Catalysts in Industry: Catalysts play a crucial role in various industrial processes, where they accelerate chemical reactions, increase reaction rates, and improve the efficiency of production processes. They are widely used in industries to enhance the yield of desired products, reduce energy consumption, and minimize waste generation. 

Catalysts in Industry

Some of the key industries that heavily rely on catalysts are as follows:

  • Petrochemical Industry: Catalysts are essential in the petrochemical industry for various processes, such as cracking, reforming, and alkylation. For instance, fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is used to convert high-boiling hydrocarbons from crude oil into valuable gasoline and other lighter products.
  • Chemical Industry: Catalysts are employed in numerous chemical synthesis processes, including the production of fertilizers, plastics, synthetic rubber, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals. Examples include the Haber-Bosch process for ammonia synthesis and the Ziegler-Natta catalyst for polymerization.
  • Refining Industry: In the oil refining industry, catalysts are used to convert crude oil into refined products like gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. Various catalytic processes, such as hydrotreating and hydrocracking, help remove impurities and upgrade the quality of petroleum products.
  • Environmental Applications: Catalysts are crucial in environmental protection, particularly in catalytic converters for vehicles. These converters use precious metal catalysts like platinum and palladium to convert harmful pollutants in vehicle exhaust into less toxic substances.
  • Food Industry: Enzymatic catalysts are widely used in the food industry to facilitate reactions that improve food quality and taste. Enzymes are employed in processes like fermentation, dairy product production, and baking.
  • Pharmaceutical Industry: Catalysts play a vital role in the pharmaceutical industry for the synthesis of drugs and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Chiral catalysts, in particular, are used to produce enantiopure compounds, which are important in pharmaceutical development.
  • Energy Production: Catalysts are used in energy-related processes, such as fuel cells and hydrogen production. Fuel cell catalysts, typically based on platinum or other precious metals, facilitate the conversion of hydrogen and oxygen into electricity and water.
  • Environmental Remediation: Catalysts are used in remediation processes to remove pollutants and contaminants from air and water. For instance, catalytic oxidation processes are employed in wastewater treatment plants.
  • Biotechnology: Enzymes are extensively used in biotechnological processes for DNA manipulation, protein synthesis, and biofuel production.
  • Textile Industry: Catalysts are used in the production of synthetic fibers and textiles, such as polyester and nylon.

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By Team Learning Mantras