C R Formula or Rajaji Formula (1944) – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

C R Formula or Rajaji Formula: C R Formula was an attempt to find a middle ground in a deeply divided political landscape, it did not succeed in preventing the partition of India and Pakistan. The post-independence history of South Asia was shaped by the events that followed the partition and the complex relationship between the two nations.

C R Formula or Rajaji Formula

The C. R. Formula, also known as the Rajaji Formula, was a proposal put forward by C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji), a prominent Indian leader and politician, in 1944 during the struggle for India’s independence from British colonial rule. The formula was presented as a way to resolve the political deadlock and reach a consensus between the Indian National Congress (INC) and the Muslim League regarding India’s future political structure. Here are the key points of the C. R. Formula:


  • During the 1940s, India was experiencing heightened communal tensions and political deadlock between the INC and the Muslim League over the future of India’s political structure.
  • The Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, was demanding the creation of a separate Muslim state, Pakistan, while the INC, led by Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, was advocating for a united, independent India.

Key Provisions of the C. R. Formula: The C. R. Formula proposed a decentralized, federal structure for India, with the following key provisions:

  • Provincial Autonomy: The provinces of British India would have significant autonomy and authority over most matters, including finance, administration, and legislation.
  • Grouping of Provinces: Provinces would be grouped into three categories. The A group was to be predominantly Hindu, the B group predominantly Muslim, and the C group would consist of Bengal and Punjab. The grouping was intended to address communal concerns.
  • Central Authority: A central government would handle only a limited number of subjects, including defense, foreign affairs, communications, and currency.
  • Right to Secede: The formula included a provision for any province or group to opt out of the proposed federal structure and decide its own future, including whether to join the Dominion of India or the Dominion of Pakistan.

Response and Reception:

  • The C R Formula was seen as a compromise aimed at accommodating the concerns of both the INC and the Muslim League. However, it faced opposition from hardliners on both sides who were unwilling to accept any compromise.
  • The INC and the Muslim League did not formally accept the formula, and it did not lead to a concrete resolution of the political deadlock.


  • The failure of the C R Formula to gain widespread acceptance ultimately contributed to the prolonged and contentious negotiations that followed.
  • The Mountbatten Plan and the subsequent partition of India in 1947 led to the creation of two independent nations, India and Pakistan, based on religious lines.

Download C R Formula or Rajaji Formula Notes PDF in Hindi

Download C R Formula or Rajaji Formula Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras