Blood Plasma: Components Functions and Uses – Class 11 | Chapter – 18 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Blood Plasma: Blood plasma is a light amber liquid component of blood that is separated from the blood cells. However, it holds proteins as well as other constituents of whole blood in suspension and it forms about 55% of the body’s total blood volume. Blood plasma is considered as the intravascular part of extracellular fluid,


Blood is a type of connective tissue made up of a fluid matrix, plasma, and formed components. To transport food, oxygen, etc., sophisticated organisms require unique fluids throughout their bodies. Most higher species, including humans, use blood as their primary bodily fluid for this purpose. RBC (red blood cells), WBC (white blood cells), blood platelets, plasma, and serum are the main components of blood. The major component of blood is plasma, which is one of these components.

Plasma is referred to as the blood matrix. Plasma is an extracellular and liquid component of blood that is clear and pale yellow or straw-colored. Clotting factors and other protein molecules make up the majority of it. Plasma accounts for 50 to 55 percent of total blood volume. The plasma in the blood is mostly water, with the remaining 10% made up of salts, fats, nutrients, enzymes, and hormones.

Plasma in blood cells has a high concentration of proteins, immunoglobulins, clotting factors, and fibrinogen. This protein aids in the production of coagulation factors as well as the maintenance of serum osmotic pressure. Factors for blood coagulation or clotting are also present in plasma in an inactive state. The serum is plasma devoid of clotting factors.

Plasma is 90% water, with the remaining 10% made up of ions, proteins, dissolved gases, nutritional molecules, and wastes. Antibody proteins, coagulation factors, and the proteins albumin and fibrinogen, which regulate serum osmotic pressure, are all found in plasma. Each of them may be isolated using various ways to create distinct blood products that are used to treat various diseases. Clotting factors, for example, are used to treat coagulation diseases such as hemophilia and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

Functions of Blood Plasma

The purpose of blood plasma are as follows:

  • Plasma is collected from the liquid component of the blood and is frequently utilized in blood group research investigations to determine the patient’s blood group.
  • Blood plasma also contains important proteins and other necessary components for good health. As a result, patients with liver failure and potentially fatal injuries are given blood plasma infusions.
  • Plasma is a fluid particle in the blood that contains the clotting component fibrinogen, which acts by stopping excessive blood flow following injury.
  • Blood plasma aids in the regulation of body temperature and is in charge of blood pressure regulation.
  • In addition to blood clotting, the fluid matrix aids in the circulation of blood platelets, red and white blood cells (RBC), hormones, and digested food particles.

Names of Plasma Proteins

Blood plasma protein names and their normal values are as follows:

  • Serum globulin (2 – 3.5 g/dL)
  • Serum albumin (3.5 – 5.5 g/dL)
  • Fibrinogen (0.2 – 0.4 g/dL)

The serum contains only globulin and albumin. Fibrinogen is absent in serum because it is converted into fibrin during blood clotting.

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By Team Learning Mantras