Anaphase – Class 11 | Chapter – 10 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

AnaphaseIt is a mitotic stage in which the chromosomes split and the sister chromatids move towards the opposite poles of the cell. The microtubules connecting the chromosomes shorten and the chromatids are pulled towards the centrosome. The sister chromatids separate at the beginning of anaphase when the separase enzyme acts on cohesin that binds the chromatids together. It is the shortest phase of the cell cycle as it is involved only in the separation of sister chromatids.



Phases of Anaphase

It can be distinguished into two phases:

  • Anaphase A is characterised by the movement of chromosomes to the opposite poles with the help of kinetochore microtubules. The microtubules create a central force by attaching themselves to the centromere of the chromosomes. The attached microtubule depolymerises and becomes shorter and pulls the chromosomes apart towards the centrosomes, along with the help of motor proteins.
  • Anaphase B is characterised by the separation of poles from each other with the assistance of astral and interpolar microtubules. The interpolar microtubules arise from the centrosome; they push against each other to throw the centrosomes further away.

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By Team Learning Mantras