Akbar (1556-1605) – Medieval Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Akbar: Akbar’s reign is celebrated for its emphasis on religious harmony, administrative efficiency, and cultural flourishing. His legacy continues to be a source of inspiration and admiration in India’s historical narrative.


Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great, was the third ruler of the Mughal Empire, reigning from 1556 to 1605. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest emperors in Indian history and played a crucial role in expanding and consolidating the Mughal Empire. Here are key points about Akbar’s reign and legacy:

1. Early Life: Akbar was born on October 15, 1542, in Umerkot, Sindh, to Emperor Humayun and Hamida Banu Begum. He ascended to the throne at the age of 13 after his father’s death.

2. Regency and Early Challenges: Akbar’s early years were marked by his regents and guardians managing the empire on his behalf. The empire faced internal strife and external threats from various regional rulers and rival Mughal claimants.

3. Conquest and Expansion: Akbar was a skilled military strategist and embarked on a series of conquests to expand the Mughal Empire. His campaigns brought significant territories under Mughal control, including parts of northern and central India.

4. Administrative Reforms: Akbar introduced a system of governance known as the “Mansabdari system,” which involved assigning ranks (mansabs) to nobles based on their military and administrative capabilities. He also implemented land revenue reforms and sought to ensure fair treatment of his subjects.

5. Religious Tolerance: Akbar is renowned for his policy of religious tolerance. He actively promoted religious harmony and sought to create a syncretic and inclusive society. He held discussions with scholars of various faiths and encouraged the exchange of ideas.

6. Abolition of Jizya: In a significant move, Akbar abolished the jizya tax, which was imposed on non-Muslims. This gesture was seen as a symbol of religious tolerance and equality.

7. Patronage of Arts and Culture: Akbar was a patron of the arts, literature, and architecture. His court hosted prominent poets, scholars, and artists, including Tansen, Birbal, and Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak.

8. Architectural Achievements: Akbar’s reign saw the construction of several magnificent buildings, including Fatehpur Sikri, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the Lahore Fort. He also commissioned the translation of Sanskrit texts into Persian.

9. Divine Faith (Din-i Ilahi): In an attempt to foster religious unity, Akbar created a syncretic religion known as Din-i Ilahi, which incorporated elements of various faiths. However, it did not gain widespread acceptance.

10. Legacy: Akbar’s reign is considered a golden period in Mughal history. His administrative innovations, promotion of religious tolerance, and cultural contributions left a lasting impact on India. He is often remembered as one of India’s greatest emperors.

11. Succession: Akbar was succeeded by his son Jahangir after his death in 1605. Jahangir continued many of Akbar’s policies and practices.

Download Akbar Notes PDF in Hindi

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By Team Learning Mantras