## Vector product of two Vectors – Class 11 | Chapter – 7 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Vector product of two Vectors: The vector product has many important applications in physics and engineering, such as in the calculation of torque and angular momentum in rotational motion, in electromagnetism for the calculation of magnetic fields, and in fluid mechanics for the calculation of vorticity. It is also used in 3D computer graphics to calculate lighting and shading effects.

## Vector product of two Vectors

The vector product, also known as the cross product, is an operation between two vectors that results in a third vector that is perpendicular to both of the original vectors. The cross product of two vectors a and b is denoted by a × b and is defined as:

a × b = |a| |b| sin(θ) n

where |a| and |b| are the magnitudes of the vectors a and b, θ is the angle between the two vectors, and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both a and b in the direction given by the right-hand rule.

The right-hand rule is used to determine the direction of the resulting vector. To apply the right-hand rule, place the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the first vector (a) and curl them towards the second vector (b). Your thumb will then point in the direction of the resulting vector (a × b).

The magnitude of the resulting vector is given by:

|a × b| = |a| |b| sin(θ)

The cross product has many important applications in physics and engineering, such as in the calculation of torque and angular momentum in rotational motion, in electromagnetism for the calculation of magnetic fields, and in fluid mechanics for the calculation of vorticity. It is also used in 3D computer graphics to calculate lighting and shading effects.

## Applications of Vector product of two Vectors

The vector product, also known as the cross product, has many important applications in physics and engineering. Some of the most common applications of the vector product include:

• Calculation of torque: The cross product is used to calculate torque, which is a measure of the force that causes an object to rotate. The torque produced by a force F acting at a distance r from an axis of rotation is given by the cross product τ = r × F.
• Calculation of angular momentum: The cross product is used to calculate angular momentum, which is a measure of the rotational motion of an object. The angular momentum of an object with mass m and velocity v rotating around an axis is given by the cross product L = r × p, where r is the position vector of the object with respect to the axis of rotation, and p is its linear momentum.
• Calculation of magnetic fields: The cross product is used to calculate magnetic fields, which are produced by moving electric charges. The magnetic field produced by a current I flowing through a wire in a magnetic field B is given by the cross product B = I × r, where r is the position vector of a point in space with respect to the wire.
• Calculation of vorticity: The cross product is used to calculate vorticity, which is a measure of the local rotation of a fluid. The vorticity of a fluid element with velocity v is given by the cross product ω = ∇ × v, where ∇ is the gradient operator.
• 3D Computer graphics: The cross product is used extensively in 3D computer graphics to calculate lighting and shading effects, such as surface normals and specular highlights.

 JOIN OUR TELEGRAM CHANNELS Biology Quiz & Notes Physics Quiz & Notes Chemistry Quiz & Notes