Van De Graaff Generator – Class 12 | Chapter – 2 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Van De Graaff Generator: A Van de Graaff generator is a device that generates high voltage, high frequency electrical charges. It operates on the principle of electrostatic induction and uses a moving belt to transfer electrons from a negatively charged metal dome to a positively charged metal dome. Van de Graaff generators are commonly used in educational settings to demonstrate the principles of electrostatics and high voltage physics. They can also be used in research facilities for experiments in fields such as nuclear physics, materials science, and high energy particle physics.
The Van de Graaff generator consists of a metal dome, an insulated support structure, a motor, a belt, and a high voltage power supply. The metal dome is charged by a high voltage power supply, which causes electrons to flow from the dome to the ground. The moving belt collects electrons from the dome and transports them to the positive terminal, where they are deposited on the other dome. This process creates a large difference in electric potential between the two domes, which can be used for various purposes, such as generating X-rays or producing sparks.
Working principle of Van De Graaff Generator
A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator that uses a moving belt to carry electric charge to a high potential terminal. The basic principle of operation is that a stream of electrons are carried by a moving belt to the high potential terminal, where they are accumulated. The high potential terminal is maintained at a high electric potential relative to the ground by means of a spark gap or an insulation barrier, which prevents electrical discharge to ground.
The belt of the generator is made of an insulating material, such as rubber, which allows it to move freely and carry electric charge. The belt is driven by a motor, which turns a set of rollers that are in contact with the belt. Electrons are removed from the belt by a charging device, such as a corona wire or a point-contact ionizer, and are carried to the high potential terminal.
The electric potential at the high potential terminal increases as more and more electrons are accumulated, until it becomes high enough to cause electrical breakdown of the insulation barrier or the spark gap. This electrical discharge can be used to produce lightning-like discharges, or to study various phenomena related to high-voltage electricity.
Labelled Diagram of Van De Graaff Generator
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