Third Battle of Panipat – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Third Battle of Panipat: The Third Battle of Panipat remains a significant historical event, exemplifying the complexities and power struggles in 18th-century India and leading to significant changes in the political landscape of the subcontinent.

Third Battle of Panipat

The Third Battle of Panipat, fought on January 14, 1761, near the town of Panipat in present-day Haryana, was one of the largest and bloodiest battles in Indian history. It was a pivotal conflict that had far-reaching consequences for the Indian subcontinent. Here are key details about the Third Battle of Panipat:


  • The battle took place during a period of intense political and military turmoil in India. The Mughal Empire was in a state of decline, while regional powers and foreign colonial forces were vying for supremacy.
  • The main belligerents in the battle were the Maratha Empire and the Durrani Empire, led by Ahmad Shah Durrani (also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali).


  • The immediate cause of the battle was the Marathas’ expansion into northern India and their confrontation with the Durrani Empire, which sought to regain control over Punjab and the surrounding regions.


  • The Marathas, under the command of their commander-in-chief, Sadashivrao Bhau, had a massive army, estimated to number over 100,000 soldiers.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani led the Afghan forces, which were bolstered by allies and a combined army from various regions.

Course of the Battle:

  • The battle was fought on an open plain near Panipat.
  • The Marathas initially had the upper hand, but their large and unwieldy army faced logistical challenges, and internal divisions and communication issues plagued their efforts.
  • Ahmad Shah Durrani’s troops were disciplined and experienced in open-field warfare.
  • The turning point came when the Afghan forces launched a surprise attack on the Maratha camp during the night, causing confusion and disarray.
  • The battle turned into a massacre, with heavy casualties on both sides. The Marathas suffered a devastating defeat.


  • The Durrani Empire emerged victorious in the Third Battle of Panipat.
  • The Marathas suffered heavy losses, and their military power was severely diminished.
  • The battle significantly weakened the Maratha Empire’s control over northern India, and they were forced to retreat to the Deccan region.


  • The Third Battle of Panipat was a major setback for the Marathas and marked the end of their ambitions to expand into northern India.
  • The battle had a profound impact on the political landscape of India. It contributed to the decentralization of power, with various regional kingdoms asserting their independence.
  • The Durrani Empire, despite its victory, did not establish a lasting presence in northern India and eventually withdrew.
  • The decline of the Mughal Empire continued, with the emperor’s authority being further diminished.
  • The British East India Company, which had already established a presence in India, would eventually benefit from the weakened Marathas and Mughals, as it expanded its colonial rule over the Indian subcontinent.

Download Third Battle of Panipat Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Third Battle of Panipat Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras