Third and Fourth Anglo Mysore Wars: These wars solidified British dominance in southern India, marked the decline of the Mysore kingdom, and were a part of the broader expansion of British colonial rule on the Indian subcontinent. The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, in particular, had lasting consequences and marked the end of Mysore’s resistance to British rule.
Third and Fourth Anglo Mysore Wars
The Third and Fourth Anglo-Mysore Wars were two significant military conflicts fought between the British East India Company and the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. These wars marked a continuation of the power struggle between the British and the Mysore kingdom, ruled by Tipu Sultan. Here are the key details about these two conflicts:
Third Anglo-Mysore War (1790-1792):
- The Third Anglo-Mysore War was primarily triggered by Tipu Sultan’s desire to regain territories he had lost to the British in previous conflicts and to challenge British influence in southern India.
- Tensions were also exacerbated by the French Revolutionary Wars in Europe, where the British and French were on opposing sides.
Course of the War:
- The conflict began in 1790 when Tipu Sultan launched an invasion of the British-ruled territories in the Carnatic and captured several important towns.
- The British, led by General Sir William Medows and later by Governor-General Lord Cornwallis, formed a coalition with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad to counter Tipu Sultan.
- The war was marked by several battles and sieges, including the successful siege of Srirangapatna, the capital of Mysore, in 1792.
- Tipu Sultan was forced to sign the Treaty of Seringapatam in 1792, ceding significant territories to the British, including Malabar and part of the Coimbatore region. He also agreed to pay a large indemnity.
- The Third Anglo-Mysore War marked a significant expansion of British territories in southern India and weakened Mysore’s power.
- Tipu Sultan’s ability to challenge the British was curtailed, but he remained a formidable adversary.
Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1798-1799):
- The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War was instigated by a combination of factors, including the deteriorating relationship between Tipu Sultan and the British, tensions in the region, and the broader geopolitical context in Europe.
- Tipu Sultan was also seeking alliances with the French.
Course of the War:
- The war began in 1798 when the British, under the command of Governor-General Lord Mornington (Marquess Wellesley), launched an invasion of Mysore with the support of the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas.
- The British besieged Srirangapatna, and in 1799, the capital fell to the British forces.
- During the siege, Tipu Sultan was killed in the battle.
- The Fourth Anglo-Mysore War led to the complete subjugation of Mysore under British control.
- The Treaty of Seringapatam, signed in 1799, resulted in the disbandment of Tipu Sultan’s army, the cession of a significant portion of Mysore’s territories to the British, and the restoration of the Wodeyar dynasty as puppet rulers under British suzerainty.
By Team Learning Mantras