## Thermodynamic Processes – Class 11 | Chapter – 12 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Thermodynamic Processes: Thermodynamic processes are the ways in which a system changes from one state to another under the influence of external factors such as temperature, pressure, and volume. An example of a thermodynamics processes is increasing the pressure of gas in a container where the temperature is constant.

## Types of Thermodynamic Processes

In thermodynamics, a process is a transformation of a system from an initial state to a final state. There are several types of thermodynamic processes, including:

• Isothermal process: This process occurs at a constant temperature, and involves the transfer of heat into or out of the system. The pressure and volume of the system change, but the internal energy remains constant.
• Adiabatic process: This process occurs without any heat transfer into or out of the system. The change in pressure and volume causes a change in the internal energy of the system.
• Isobaric process: This process occurs at a constant pressure, and involves the transfer of heat into or out of the system. The volume of the system changes, but the internal energy remains constant.
• Isochoric process: This process occurs at a constant volume, and no work is performed. The change in temperature causes a change in the internal energy of the system.
• Reversible process: This process can be reversed by changing the direction of the driving forces, and it proceeds at a rate that is infinitesimally close to equilibrium. In a reversible process, the system and the surroundings remain in thermal and mechanical equilibrium at all times.
• Irreversible process: This process cannot be reversed, and it proceeds at a rate that is faster than equilibrium. In an irreversible process, the system and the surroundings do not remain in thermal and mechanical equilibrium at all times.

These thermodynamic processes are often depicted on a thermodynamic diagram, such as a pressure-volume (PV) or temperature-entropy (TS) diagram. The behavior of a system undergoing a thermodynamic process can be analyzed using the laws of thermodynamics, which describe the relationships between energy, heat, work, and entropy.

## Thermodynamic System

In thermodynamics, a system is any region of space or substance that is being studied or analyzed. It is separated from the surroundings by a boundary, which may be real or imaginary. The boundary can be fixed or movable, and it may allow matter and/or energy to cross it.

## Types of Thermodynamic Systems

• Open system: An open system allows both matter and energy to cross its boundary with the surroundings. Examples of open systems include a car engine or a boiling pot of water, where fuel and air are added and exhaust gases and steam are released.
• Closed system: A closed system allows energy to cross its boundary, but not matter. The total mass of a closed system remains constant, but the energy can be transferred in the form of heat or work. An example of a closed system is a cylinder with a movable piston containing a gas.
• Isolated system: An isolated system does not allow any matter or energy to cross its boundary with the surroundings. An example of an isolated system is a thermally insulated container that contains a gas.

Thermodynamic systems can be described using various thermodynamic properties, including temperature, pressure, volume, and internal energy. The behavior of a system can be analyzed using the laws of thermodynamics, which describe the relationships between energy, heat, work, and entropy. The study of thermodynamic systems is important in many fields, including engineering, physics, chemistry, and environmental science.

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