Subsidiary Alliance – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Subsidiary Alliance: The Subsidiary Alliance was a policy and diplomatic strategy employed by the British East India Company in the Indian subcontinent during the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a significant tool used by the British to expand their territorial control and influence in India. Here’s an overview of the Subsidiary Alliance:

Subsidiary Alliance

Key Features and Objectives:

  1. Militarization and Hegemony: The Subsidiary Alliance was designed to strengthen the military and political influence of the British East India Company. It allowed the Company to exert control over various Indian states without formally annexing them.
  2. Client States: Under this policy, Indian princely states remained nominally independent but became subordinate to the British East India Company in terms of defense, foreign policy, and, in some cases, internal administration. The rulers of these states were often reduced to figurehead positions.
  3. Payment of Tribute: The subsidiary states were required to pay regular tributes to the British East India Company to maintain a British military presence in their territories for their protection.
  4. Stationing of British Troops: British troops, also known as “subsidiary forces,” were stationed within the subsidiary states. These forces were funded by the princely states themselves.

Implementation and Consequences:

  1. Nawab of Oudh (Awadh): The Nawab of Oudh (modern-day Uttar Pradesh) was one of the first rulers to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the British in 1801. The British stationed troops in Oudh, leading to the depletion of the state’s resources and eventual annexation in 1856.
  2. Hyderabad and Mysore: The Nizam of Hyderabad and the ruler of Mysore, Tipu Sultan, also entered into subsidiary alliances with the British.
  3. Expansion of British Influence: The policy allowed the British East India Company to extend its control over large parts of India without officially annexing them. The states that entered into subsidiary alliances were, in effect, semi-client states under British control.
  4. Depletion of State Finances: The tributes paid by the subsidiary states often placed a heavy financial burden on their resources. This, in turn, led to economic and political instability in these regions.
  5. Political Subjugation: The rulers of the subsidiary states were largely powerless, with British Resident Officers often guiding their decisions.
  6. Resistance and Revolts: Some subsidiary states, such as Marathas and the Sikh Empire, attempted to resist British influence, leading to conflicts and wars.


The Subsidiary Alliance policy played a crucial role in the expansion of British control in India during the 18th and 19th centuries. It weakened the autonomy and power of many Indian princely states, leading to their eventual annexation or incorporation into British India. The policy was a critical component of the broader British imperial agenda in India, ultimately contributing to the consolidation of British colonial rule over the subcontinent.

Download Subsidiary Alliance Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Subsidiary Alliance Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras