Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed – Class 11 | Chapter – 5 | Short Notes Series PDF

Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed: Monocot plants are marked by seeds with a single cotyledon, parallel-veined leaves, scattered vascular bundles in the stem, the absence of a typical cambium, and an adventitious root system.

Structure of Monocotyledonous Seed

  • Seed coat-The maize seed has a tarnish membranous covering framed of seed cover combined with the natural product wall (Pericarp). It is the defensive layer of the seed. 
  • Endosperm-The grain is partitioned into two particular inconsistent districts isolated by an unmistakable epithelial layer in the longitudinal segment. The upper greater part of the grain is the endosperm and the lower more modest district is the undeveloped organism. 
  • Undeveloped organism-It is organized at a slant on the lower piece of endosperm and comprises of the accompanying parts-a solitary cotyledon, radicle, and plumule. The radicle is situated towards the lower end of the undeveloped organism and the plumule is available towards the upper finish of the incipient organism. The radicle end is covered by a defensive sheath by a coleorhiza and the plumule end of the incipient organism is covered by a defensive sheath called a coleoptile. The radicle of the undeveloped organism forms into the root and the plumule into shoot after the germination of the seed. 
  • Cotyledon-In Maize seed, the cotyledon is a three-sided molded hard safeguard-like design called Scutellum. The scutellum is joined to the endosperm by an epithelial layer. Its capability is to process and retain supplements from the endosperm and supply it to the developing undeveloped organism. 


  • The monocotyledonous incipient organisms have a solitary cotyledon
  • They have a sinewy root foundation 
  • Leaves in monocots have equal venation 
  • In monocot blossoms, the count of parts of the bloom is a numerous of three or equivalent to three 
  • The roots and stems of monocotyledons don’t have cambium and can’t increment in measurement 
  • Examples of monocotyledons are garlic, onions, wheat, corn and grass, and so on. 


  • The dicotyledonous incipient organisms have a couple of cotyledons 
  • They have a tap root foundation 
  • Leaves in dicots have reticulate or net venation 
  • The include of parts in a dicot bloom is a variety of four or five or equivalent to four or five 
  • The roots and stems of dicotyledons have cambium and can increment in measurement  
  • Examples of dicots are beans, cauliflower, apples and pear, and so forth. 

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By Team Learning Mantras