Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid – Class 12 | Chapter – 2 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid: The solubility of a solid in a liquid refers to the amount of that solid that can dissolve in a given amount of that liquid at a specific temperature and pressure. The solubility of a solid in a liquid can be expressed in several ways, including grams of solute per liter of solvent (g/L), grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent (g/100g), or moles of solute per liter of solvent (mol/L). The solubility of a solid in a liquid is an important property in many fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, and pharmaceuticals.
Solubility of a Solid in a Liquid
The solubility of a solid in a liquid depends on several factors, including the nature of the solid and the liquid, the temperature, and the pressure.
- Nature of the solid and liquid: The solubility of a solid in a liquid is influenced by the chemical nature of both the solid and the liquid. Generally, solids with polar molecules or ionic compounds are more soluble in polar solvents, while nonpolar solids are more soluble in nonpolar solvents. For example, salt (NaCl) is highly soluble in water, which is a polar solvent, but is insoluble in nonpolar solvents like benzene.
- Temperature: The solubility of a solid in a liquid generally increases with temperature. This is because an increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the solvent molecules, allowing them to break down the bonds between the solute molecules more easily. However, there are some exceptions to this rule. For example, the solubility of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in water decreases with increasing temperature.
- Pressure: The solubility of a solid in a liquid is usually not affected by pressure, except in the case of gases that dissolve in liquids. For example, the solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2) in water increases with increasing pressure.
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