Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid – Class 12 | Chapter – 2 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid: The solubility of a gas in a liquid refers to the ability of a gas to dissolve in a liquid to form a homogeneous solution. The solubility of a gas in a liquid can be expressed in several ways, including mole fraction, partial pressure, or concentration. The solubility of gases in liquids is an important property in many fields, including chemistry, environmental science, and engineering.
Solubility of a Gas in a Liquid
The solubility of a gas in a liquid depends on several factors, including the nature of the gas and the liquid, the temperature, and the pressure.
- Nature of the gas and liquid: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is influenced by the chemical nature of both the gas and the liquid. Generally, gases with higher polarity or higher molecular weight are more soluble in polar solvents. For example, oxygen (O2) is more soluble in water than is methane (CH4), which is nonpolar.
- Temperature: The solubility of a gas in a liquid generally decreases with increasing temperature. This is because an increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the gas molecules, allowing them to escape from the liquid more easily. Conversely, a decrease in temperature decreases the kinetic energy of the gas molecules, making it more difficult for them to escape from the liquid. For example, carbon dioxide (CO2) is more soluble in cold water than in warm water.
- Pressure: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. This is known as Henry’s law. Increasing the pressure of a gas above a liquid increases the amount of gas that can dissolve in the liquid. Conversely, decreasing the pressure decreases the amount of gas that can dissolve in the liquid. For example, the solubility of carbon dioxide in water increases as the pressure of carbon dioxide above the water increases.
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