Second Anglo Sikh War: The Second Anglo-Sikh War solidified British control over the Punjab, a crucial region that further expanded British influence in India. The annexation of the Punjab marked one of the final stages in the subjugation of the Indian subcontinent by the British East India Company and the beginning of direct British rule in this region.
Second Anglo Sikh War
The Second Anglo-Sikh War, also known as the Second Sikh War, was a military conflict that took place in 1848-1849 between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company. This war was a continuation of the First Anglo-Sikh War and ultimately led to the annexation of the Punjab region by the British. Here are the key events and outcomes of the Second Anglo-Sikh War:
- After the First Anglo-Sikh War, the Punjab region remained under British control, with the young Maharaja Duleep Singh as a puppet ruler. The presence of British troops and the annexation of Sikh territories had generated widespread discontent among the Sikh population.
- Sikh Resistance: The annexation of the Punjab by the British and the humiliation of the Sikh nobility and army led to strong anti-British sentiment.
- Revolt in Multan: A rebellion in the city of Multan in 1848, initially against Sikh rule, eventually became an anti-British uprising. The British sought to suppress the rebellion.
- The Second Anglo-Sikh War began in 1848 when the Sikh army, under the command of leaders such as Chhatar Singh and Sher Singh Attariwala, revolted against the British.
- The Siege of Multan (1848) was a protracted battle as the British tried to quell the rebellion in the city of Multan.
- The Battle of Chillianwala (January 1849) was a major engagement during the war. While both sides suffered heavy casualties, the British under Sir Hugh Gough were unable to secure a decisive victory.
- The Battle of Gujrat (February 1849) marked the final battle of the war. The British, under the leadership of Sir Charles Napier, defeated the Sikh forces, leading to the collapse of the Sikh rebellion.
- The Treaty of Lahore was signed in March 1849, which marked the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War. Under the terms of the treaty, the Punjab was formally annexed by the British East India Company.
- Maharaja Duleep Singh, who had been placed under British protection following the First Anglo-Sikh War, was dethroned, and the Sikh Empire ceased to exist. Duleep Singh was exiled to Britain, and the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond was confiscated by the British.
- The annexation of the Punjab was a significant step in the British conquest of India, bringing this rich and strategically important region under direct British control.
- The Punjab was integrated into British India, and its administration came under the control of the British colonial authorities.
By Team Learning Mantras