Revolt of 1857 (First War of Independence Against British) – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Revolt of 1857 – First War of Independence Against British: The Revolt of 1857 is a significant and complex historical event, with interpretations varying from being seen as a “First War of Independence” to a “sepoy mutiny” or a “revolt.” It remains a crucial part of India’s history and its long struggle for self-determination.

Revolt of 1857 – First War of Independence Against British

The Revolt of 1857, often referred to as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 or the First War of Independence, was a significant and widespread uprising against British colonial rule in India. It began as a mutiny among Indian sepoys (Indian soldiers serving under British command) in the British East India Company’s army but quickly escalated into a broader anti-British and anti-colonial movement. Here are the key events and outcomes of the Revolt of 1857:


  1. Sepoy Mutiny: The immediate trigger for the revolt was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle cartridges, which were rumored to be greased with animal fat, offending the religious beliefs of both Hindu and Muslim sepoys.
  2. Long-standing Grievances: The sepoys’ discontent was rooted in various long-standing grievances, including economic exploitation, cultural insensitivity, and interference in local customs and traditions by the British.
  3. Discontent among Various Groups: The revolt received support not only from sepoys but also from diverse sections of Indian society, including peasants, nobility, and discontented rulers of princely states.

Key Events:

  1. Mutiny Begins: The mutiny began on May 10, 1857, in the town of Meerut when sepoys refused to use the new cartridges and were subsequently punished. This marked the official start of the revolt.
  2. Spread of Rebellion: The rebellion quickly spread to other parts of northern and central India, with major centers of conflict including Delhi, Kanpur, Lucknow, Jhansi, and various regions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  3. Leadership: The revolt was led by a mix of leaders, including Bahadur Shah II (the last Mughal emperor), Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi, Kunwar Singh, Bahadur Shah Zafar II, and many others.
  4. Intense Fighting: The conflict saw intense fighting between the Indian rebels and British forces. Major battles included the Siege of Delhi, the Siege of Lucknow, and the Battle of Kanpur, among others.


  1. Suppression: The British, with superior military forces, eventually succeeded in suppressing the revolt. Delhi was recaptured in September 1857, and other rebel strongholds were gradually taken back.
  2. Repercussions: The British response to the rebellion was brutal and resulted in widespread atrocities and reprisals against Indians. The execution of Bahadur Shah Zafar II in 1857 marked the symbolic end of the Mughal Empire.
  3. End of the East India Company: In the aftermath of the revolt, the British government dissolved the British East India Company and took direct control of India under the British Crown, beginning the period of British Raj.
  4. Changes in Policies: The British government, in an effort to prevent such uprisings in the future, adopted more conciliatory policies, including the policy of “Divide and Rule.” They also made attempts to understand and respect Indian customs and traditions more carefully.
  5. Legacy: The Revolt of 1857 had a profound impact on Indian nationalist sentiment. It planted the seeds of the struggle for Indian independence and served as a precursor to the later Indian independence movement. It is often regarded as the first major organized resistance to British colonialism.

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By Team Learning Mantras