## Respiratory Volumes and Capacities – Class 11 | Chapter – 17 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Respiratory Volumes and Capacities: Respiratory volume simply connotes the amount of air that our lungs can inhale, absorb or exhale under certain conditions. It can also be regarded as the lung volume definition.

There is an apparatus for the calculation of volumes of air present in the lungs. This apparatus is recognized as a ‘Spirometer’. It also enables us to check other criteria associated with the lungs.

## Types of Respiratory Volumes and Capacities

• Tidal Volume (TV) -> Tidal volume can be best explained as the quantity of air that we breathe in and out of the body at the time of normal breathing. It stands roughly around 500 ml. A normal person takes 12-16 breaths each minute. So, if we calculate the tidal volume in a minute, it stands around 6000-8000 ml per minute.

• Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) -> Whenever we inhale air beyond the normal capacity by exerting maximum force, that extra amount of inhaled air is termed as inspiratory reserve volume. It is calculated that the approximate value comes somewhat between 2500 ml to 3000 ml.

• Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) -> Whenever we exhale air beyond the normal capacity by exerting maximum force, that extra amount of exhaled air is explained as expiratory reserve volume. It is calculated that the overall value comes around 1000 ml-1100 ml.

• Residual Volume (RV) -> After releasing the air from the body, some amount of air still remains in the lungs. Thus, the amount of air still remaining in the lungs, subsequent to vigorous/energetic expiration is quoted as Residual volume. The approximate data ranges between 1100 ml-1200 ml.

### Human Lung Capacity

From the above discussion, it is clear that there are certain lung volumes and capacities associated with the human respiratory system. Now, what is lung capacity? When two or more respiratory volumes/ lung volumes are combined, the result we get is lung capacity or to be more precise respiratory capacity.

The respiratory capacity can be further categorized into:-

1. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): Whenever a person inhales air immediately followed by releasing it under usual condition (i.e. not forcibly), the air that is received by the body is designated as inspiratory capacity. Thus, inspiratory capacity is found to be a summation of tidal volume and inspiratory reserve volume.

2. Expiratory Capacity (EC): Just in an opposite manner, when a person exhales air immediately followed by inhalation under usual condition (i.e. not forcibly), the air that is released out of the body is designated as expiratory capacity. Thus, expiratory capacity is found to be a summation of tidal volume and expiratory reserve volume.

3. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): As mentioned earlier, some amount of air still stays in the lungs, even after exhalation of air under ordinary conditions. This amount of air can be mentioned as functional residual capacity. It is basically a combination of expiratory reserve volume and residual volume.

4. Vital Capacity (VC): The maximum amount of air taken in or released out by someone immediately followed by exhalation and inhalation of air respectively is defined as vital capacity. It is an aggregation of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume.

5. Total Lung Capacity: Total lung capacity is interpreted as the absolute amount of air remaining in the lungs prior to vigorous inhalation of air. This is a sum total of residual volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume and tidal volume. The total lung capacity formula is RV+ERV+TV+IRV. Total lung capacity in ml is around 5800 ml.

### Lung Volumes and Capacities Values

We can express Respiratory Volumes and Capacities normal values as under:

• Inspiratory capacity = 3000 ml- 3500 ml

• Expiratory capacity = 1500 ml- 1600 ml

• Functional residual capacity = 2500 ml

• Vital capacity = 3500 ml- 4500 ml

• Total lung capacity = 5800 ml

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