Reproductive Health Notes PDF: Find below the important notes for the chapter, Reproductive Health as per the NEET Biology syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Important notes for NEET Biology- Reproductive Health Notes PDF cover all the important topics and concepts useful for the exam.
Reproductive Health Notes PDF
Reproductive health refers to a complete physical, mental and social well-being. It doesn’t only mean the absence of disease or infertility but instead refers to a broader term, wherein a person is happy and leading a satisfying personal life. It is used to enhance the quality of life and increase awareness in the population. It includes real-life approach involving both women and men that affect them from their teens to old age. Reproductive health does not only mean any abnormality related to the reproductive system. Reproductive health includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of personal relations and awareness. It does not merely refers to counselling and care for sexually transmitted diseases and reproduction.
Reproductive Health: Problems and Strategies
- India was amongst the first countries in the world to initiate to the programme “family planning” initiated in 1951.
- Reproductive health in a society forms a crucial part of general health.
- Improved programs covering wider reproduction-related areas are currently in operation under the popular name ‘Reproductive and child health care (RCH) program.’
- Health and education of young people and marriage and child bearing during more mature stages of life are important attributes to the reproductive health of a society.
Measures taken by Government
- Awareness about family planning.
- Introduction of Sex education in schools.
- All printed materials were all distributed to provide awareness.
- Using Audio and Videos on Reproductive Health.
- Complete information about the reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, birth control methods, care of mother and newborn child, etc.
Population Explosion and Birth control
- The rapid increase in human population size over a relatively short period is called human population-explosion.
- Population growth rate depends on factors like fertility, natality, mortality, migration, age and sex structure.
- Increased health facilities and better living conditions are the cause behind population explosion.
- Out of 6 billion world population 1.3 billion populations is of Indians.
- Rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) are major cause of population growth.
- Most of the urban people are uneducated.
- Growth rate of Indian population is around 1.7 percent.
- The regulation of conception by preventive methods or devices to limit the number of offspring’s is called birth control.
- A birth control method which deliberately prevents fertilization are referred to as contraception.
- Contraceptive methods are preventive methods and are of two types – temporary and permanent.
|Rhythm Method||No intercourse during woman’s fertility period (day 12-20).|
|Withdrawal (Coitus interruptus)||Penis is withdrawn before ejavculation.|
|Tubectomy / Tubal ligation||Women’s fallopian tubes are cut and tied, permanently blocking sperm release.|
|Vasectomy||Man’s vasa deferentia are cut and tied permanently blocking sperm passage.|
|Intrauterine device (IUD)||Small plastic or metal device placed in the uterus to prevent implantation. Some contain copper, other release hormones.|
|Oral Contraceptive||Synthetic estrogens and progestrones prevent normal menstrual cycle, primarily prevent ovulation.|
|Male condom||Thin rubber sheath on erect penis collects ejaculated semen.|
|Female condom||Plastic pouch inserted into vagina catches semen.|
|Diaphragm||Soft rubber cup covers entrance to uterus, prevents sperm from reaching egg and holds spermicide.|
|Cervical cap||Miniature diaphragm covers cervix closely, prevents sperm from reaching egg and holds spermicide.|
|Foams, creams, jellies etc.||Chemical spermicides inserted in vagina before intercourse, prevent sperm from entering uterus.|
|Implant (Norplant)||Capsules surgically implanted under skin, slowly release hormone that blocks ovulation.|
|Injectable contraceptive (Depo-Provera)||Injection every 3 months of a hormone that is lowly released and prevents ovulation.|
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (MTP)
- In India, MTP is legalized in 1971 with some restriction to prevent its misuse such as indiscriminate and illegal female foeticides.
- MTP is used to
- Get rides of unwanted pregnancy due to unprotected intercourse or failure of contraceptives used during coitus or rapes.
- When pregnancy continuation could be harmful or even fetal to mother or foetus.
- MTPs are considered relatively safe during first trimester or up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. Second trimester MTPs are much more riskier.
- During pregnancy, the fetus is surrounded by amniotic fluid which is a water-like substance.
- Amniotic fluid contains live fetal skin cells and other substances, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
- These substances provide important information about baby’s health before birth.
- These days amniocentesis is being misused also, i.e., for detecting the sex of the foetus.
- Normal foetus is being aborted if it is a female.
- Inability to conceive or produce children even after 2 years of unprotected sexual cohabitation is called infertility.
- A large no of couples all over India are infertile.
- The reasons for this could be many-physical, congenital, diseases, drugs, Immunological or even Psychological.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is used to treat infertility. It includes fertility treatments that handle both eggs and sperm. It works by removing eggs from the ovaries. The eggs are then mixed with sperm to make embryos. The embryos are then put back in the parent’s body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common and effective type of ART.
In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF): The process involves the method of fusion of gametes outside the body mainly in the laboratories where the conditions that are similar to the body are maintained. The fertilized zygote formed will then be divided and results in the formation of the embryo which is then transferred into the uterus of the female.
Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT): In this process, the transfer of zygote or early embryo (up to 8 blastomeres) into the fallopian tube of the female is performed.
- Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): This process involves the collection of the ovum from the donor female and is then introduced into the other female who cannot produce the ovum but the internal body conditions are suitable for the process of fertilization and embryo development.
Importance Of Reproductive Health
- Reproductive Health conveys complete awareness of various sexually transmitted diseases.
- Provides accurate information about sexual life, reproduction, contraception methods.
- Helps in maintaining safe sexual and reproductive health.
- With this awareness, an individual can protect themselves from sexually transmitted infections and diseases.
- It provides a complete education to all pregnant mothers about how to take care of their health, to have proper medicines, to maintain good health and hygiene when they are pregnant, have a safe delivery and deliver a healthy baby.
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