Production of ATP – Class 11 | Chapter – 12 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Production of ATP: ATP is generated from ADP and phosphate ions by a complex set of processes occurring in the cell. These processes depend on the activities of a special group of coenzymes. Three important coenzymes are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).


ATP is an excellent energy storage molecule to use as “currency” due to the phosphate groups that link through phosphodiester bonds. These bonds are high energy because of the associated electronegative charges exerting a repelling force between the phosphate groups.

Production of ATP

  • ATP refers to an essential spice of energy to carry out all biological processes.
  • Plants produce ATP in two ways: in chloroplast and mitochondria.
    • Cellular respiration is a process of breakdown of glucose into oxygen and water both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
    • It takes place in the mitochondria.
    • There are three stages in cellular respiration: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
    • In glycolysis, glucose undergoes a series of chemical reactions and in the pathway it produces ATP.
    • In the citric acid cycle, when acetyl CoA undergoes another series of chemical reactions then it produces ATP as a byproduct.
    • In the light reaction of photosynthesis, when the light is absorbed in photosystem II the high-energy electron travels down an electron transport chain and releases energy.
    • Some of the released energy regulates the pumping of H+ ions from the stroma into the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast.
    • It builds a gradient force and the H+ ions pass through the enzyme called ATP synthase.
    • During that time it produces ATP.


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By Team Learning Mantras