Photosynthesis in Higher Plants – Class 11 | Chapter – 13 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Photosynthesis in Higher Plants: Photosynthesis is a natural mechanism in which plants utilise sun energy to produce food and oxygen. The process involves the plant to make glucose, which is subsequently used by the plant to produce growth compounds. Alternatively, it might be stored as starch and regenerated into glucose as needed by the plant. Finally, this can be used in the respiration process, releasing stored energy in the molecules.

Photosynthesis is defined as the process that operates in chloroplasts of green plants using photosynthetic pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotene, and xanthophyll. Photosynthesis is used by all green plants and trees, as well as a few other autotrophic organisms, to make nutrition by utilising the carbon dioxide, water, and sunshine available.

Glucose and oxygen are the end products of photosynthesis’ chemical process. The process requires green plants and trees to produce glucose, which the plant can then use to produce the chemicals required for growth. However, it could be stored as starch and then converted into glucose whenever the plant requires energy. It can be used in the process of cellular respiration, releasing the energy trapped inside molecules

Types of Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Light Reaction

This reaction is a light- dependent reaction and it is needed to produce energy molecules like ATP and NADPH. This reaction occurs in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast where the sunlight triggers of the reaction of chlorophyll pigment.

The excited chlorophyll releases an electron which is accepted by the H2 of water after its splitting. The reactions that happen are redox reactions and ultimately lead to the production of energy molecules- ATP and NADPH which are then needed for the subsequent synthesizing reactions that occur in the dark reaction.

Dark Reaction

This reaction does not literally occur in the dark but is named so because it is independent of light. This reaction can occur both in the presence and absence of light. Due to the scientists who worked to discover this cycle, this reaction is also called as the Calvin- Benson-Bassham cycle.

This reaction occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast. This reaction uses the energy molecules generated in the light phase of photosynthesis and converts CO2 into glucose. The photosynthesis process can be summarised by the following equation:

6CO2+ 6H2O→C6H12O6+ 6O2 (in the presence of sunlight)


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