Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure – Class 12 | Chapter – 2 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE

Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure: Osmosis is a process by which a solvent, such as water, passes through a semi-permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. In other words, osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a solution of lower solute concentration (hypotonic) to a solution of higher solute concentration (hypertonic) across a semi-permeable membrane.

Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semi-permeable membrane due to osmosis. It is a colligative property, meaning that it depends on the number of solute particles in a solution, regardless of their identity.

Properties of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

Some key properties of osmosis and osmotic pressure include:

  • Osmosis is a passive process: It does not require energy input and occurs spontaneously due to the concentration gradient across a semi-permeable membrane.
  • Osmosis is selective: Only solvent molecules, such as water, are able to pass through the membrane, while solute molecules are blocked.
  • Osmosis is influenced by concentration gradient: The direction and rate of osmosis depend on the difference in solute concentration between the two sides of the membrane.
  • Osmosis can lead to changes in volume and pressure: When water moves into or out of a cell or other structure, it can cause changes in volume and pressure.
  • Osmotic pressure depends on the number of solute particles: The greater the number of solute particles in a solution, the greater the osmotic pressure will be.
  • Osmotic pressure is related to the colligative properties of a solution: These properties, such as boiling point elevation and freezing point depression, depend on the concentration of solute particles in a solution.
  • Osmotic pressure plays an important role in biological processes: It is involved in the regulation of fluid balance and blood pressure in the body, as well as in many other cellular processes.

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By Team Learning Mantras