Micronutrients – Class 11 | Chapter – 12 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Micronutrients: Micronutrients are nutrients that are required by the body in lesser amounts for its growth and development. They play a major role in the metabolic activities of the body. These are classified into vitamins and microminerals. Deficiency or excess of any kind of micronutrient can make the bodily function come to a halt, and it may lead to a total dysfunction of the body.

Types of Micronutrients

Water Soluble Vitamins: Most of the vitamins can be dissolved in water. They are difficult to store in the body and get flushed out in urine when consumed in large quantities. They play an important role in producing energy. Since they are not stored in the body, it is important to take them enough from different food sources.

Fat Soluble Vitamins: These vitamins do not dissolve in water. These are stored in the liver and fatty tissues for future use. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important fat-soluble vitamins. They play a major role in the proper functioning of the immune system, proper bone development, proper vision, and protection of cells from damage.

List of Micronutrients

  • Iron: It is essential for energy transfer, nitrogen reduction, and fixation. Iron, along with sulfur, acts as a catalyst in the formation of other reactions. Yellow leaves are the symptom of Iron deficiency.
  • Chlorine: It is the nutrient which helps in osmosis and ionic balance. It also plays a key role in the process of photosynthesis. Decreased resistance, reduced plant growth are the symptoms of chlorine deficiency.
  • Manganese: It is essential for photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Premature leaf drop and delayed maturity are the symptoms of manganese deficiency. Manganese is abundant in wet soils, whereas dry soil has limited manganese.
  • Boron: It helps in the formation and strengthening of the cell walls. It helps in cell division, germination of pollen, flowering, and fruiting. Lack of boron can lead to reduced production of grains and seeds.
  • Zinc: It is an essential element which helps in photosynthesis, energy production and regulation of growth. Zinc deficiency may cause slower maturity and reduction in the size of the leaf. Zinc deficiencies often occur during the cold, wet spring season.
  • Copper: It is essential for proper photosynthesis, grain production and to the strengthening of a cell wall. Stunted growth, yellow leaves are the symptoms of copper deficiency. There will not be enough copper in many soils.
  • Molybdenum: It is responsible for pollen formation. It is also responsible for nitrogen fixation. Reduced fruit or grain growth are the symptoms of Molybdenum deficiency. Sandy soils in the humid region are the places where zinc deficiencies are found.

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