Metallic Solids – Class 12 | Chapter – 1 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Metallic Solids: Metallic solids are a type of solid material that have metallic bonding between their atoms. Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that occurs between atoms in metals and alloys, in which the valence electrons are shared between all the atoms in a metallic lattice. This type of bonding leads to many unique properties of metallic solids, including their high electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility, and thermal conductivity.
Types of Metallic Solids
There are several types of metallic solids, each with unique properties and structures. The main types of metallic solids are:
- Pure Metals: Pure metals consist of a single type of atom, such as copper, silver, and gold. These metals have a close-packed crystal structure, which leads to their characteristic properties such as high electrical conductivity, ductility, and malleability.
- Alloys: Alloys are metallic solids that contain two or more types of atoms. Examples of alloys include steel, brass, and bronze. Alloys are typically harder and stronger than pure metals and often have specific properties that make them ideal for specific applications.
- Intermetallic Compounds: Intermetallic compounds are metallic solids that contain two or more types of atoms in a fixed ratio, such as Cu3Au or Mg2Si. These compounds have a more ordered crystal structure than alloys and can have unique physical and mechanical properties.
- Amorphous Metals: Amorphous metals, also known as metallic glasses, have a disordered atomic structure that lacks long-range order. They are typically made by rapidly cooling molten metal to prevent crystallization. Amorphous metals can have unique mechanical properties, such as high strength and ductility, and are used in applications such as cutting tools and coatings.
Properties of Metallic Solids
Metallic solids have unique properties due to their metallic bonding, which is characterized by the delocalization of valence electrons throughout the solid lattice. Some of the key properties of metallic solids include:
- High Electrical Conductivity: The delocalized valence electrons in metallic solids allow for the easy flow of electrical current through the solid, making them highly conductive. This property makes metallic solids useful in electrical and electronic applications, such as wiring and circuitry.
- High Thermal Conductivity: Metallic solids also have high thermal conductivity, which means they can conduct heat easily. This property makes metallic solids useful in applications such as heat sinks and cooking utensils.
- Ductility and Malleability: Metallic solids are ductile and malleable, meaning they can be easily stretched or bent without breaking. This property is due to the ability of metallic bonds to deform and re-form when stress is applied. These properties make metallic solids useful in applications such as wire drawing, sheet metal forming, and forging.
- Luster: Metallic solids have a shiny, reflective surface known as luster. This property is due to the free movement of valence electrons, which allows them to interact with light in a way that creates the shiny appearance.
- High Melting and Boiling Points: Metallic solids typically have high melting and boiling points due to the strength of metallic bonds. This property makes them useful in high-temperature applications, such as engine components and furnace linings.
- Magnetism: Some metallic solids, such as iron, nickel, and cobalt, are magnetic. This property is due to the arrangement of their valence electrons, which creates a magnetic field.
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