Role of Macronutrients and Micronutrients In Plants – Class 12 | Chapter – 12 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Macronutrients and Micronutrients In Plants: Macronutrients and Micronutrients in Plants fall under essential nutrients that support plants for all biochemical needs and without which:

  • A plant can’t complete its life cycle.

  • Other elements can’t replace a specific function for a plant.

  • Plants cannot get full nutrition as each essential nutrient is directly involved in plant nutrition.

Out of all the essential nutrients, about half of the elements are considered as macronutrients and functions of macronutrients are very necessary, for example, carbon is required to form proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and other compounds or key plant macromolecules.

Functions of Macronutrients and Micronutrients In Plants

All the essential elements perform several functions like they maintain the osmotic concentration of the cell sap, have buffering action, show enzymatic activity and act as a major constituent of macromolecules and coenzymes. Functions of some important elements are as follows:

Nitrogen: It is required by plants in large amounts. It is taken in the form of ions from the soil. It is required for the division of cells. It is the major constituent of proteins, vitamins, hormones etc.

Phosphorus: It is a constituent of cell membranes, proteins, and nucleic acids and is required for certain important reactions.

Potassium: It is a mineral that is required in the growing parts of the plants in large amounts. It is also required for the opening and closing of stomata. It helps in the activation of enzymes and helps in maintaining the turgidity of the cell.

Calcium: It is required during cell division and in the normal functioning of the cell membrane. Metabolic activities are also regulated by this mineral.

Magnesium: It is involved in the activation of enzymes in respiration and photosynthesis and helps in the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It is also an important constituent of ribosomes and helps in maintaining the structure of the ribosome.

Sulfur: It is an important constituent of amino acids, coenzymes, and vitamins.

Iron: It is required in larger amounts as compared to other micronutrients. It is an important constituent of protein and helps with the activation of enzymes.

Manganese: Enzymes involved in photosynthesis, respiration etc are activated by this. It helps in the splitting of water during photosynthesis.

Zinc and copper are also involved in the activation of certain enzymes. interstitial fluid helps in the uptake and utilization of calcium, functioning of the membrane, pollen germination, cell elongation, germination etc. Molybdenum is a component of certain enzymes like nitrogenase etc.

Chlorine: Chlorine helps in determining the solute concentration and the anion-cation balance of the cells.


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