Lucknow Pact 1916 – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Lucknow Pact 1916: The Lucknow Pact of 1916 is remembered as a pivotal moment in Indian history when the INC and AIML set aside their differences to work together for political reforms and self-governance. It exemplified the potential for unity and cooperation across religious and communal lines in the broader context of the Indian freedom movement.

Lucknow Pact 1916

The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was an important agreement and milestone in India’s struggle for self-governance and constitutional reform during the British colonial period. It marked a significant moment of Hindu-Muslim unity and cooperation in the larger context of the Indian National Movement. Here are the key features and consequences of the Lucknow Pact:


  • The Indian National Congress (INC) and the All-India Muslim League (AIML) were two major political parties in British India. They had differing political goals and priorities, and there were often tensions between the two.

Key Features of the Lucknow Pact:

  1. Cooperation Between INC and AIML: The Lucknow Pact was an agreement signed between the INC, led by Annie Besant, and the AIML, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The pact sought to bridge the political differences between the two parties.
  2. Shared Demands: The pact presented a set of shared political demands and constitutional reforms that both parties could agree upon. The demands included:
    • The expansion of legislative councils in British India, allowing for more elected representatives.
    • Separate electorates for Muslims, a provision that had been a point of contention in the past.
    • Reserved seats for religious minorities in the legislative councils.
  3. Hindu-Muslim Unity: The Lucknow Pact symbolized a spirit of Hindu-Muslim unity and cooperation in the political struggle against British colonial rule. It helped to overcome communal tensions and promote a sense of common purpose.

Consequences of the Lucknow Pact:

  1. Reforms and Government of India Act 1919: The shared demands of the Lucknow Pact influenced the Government of India Act of 1919 (also known as the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms). The act expanded the powers of Indian legislative councils, introducing a diarchal system with elements of self-governance at the provincial level.
  2. Positive Symbolism: The Lucknow Pact is often celebrated for bringing Hindus and Muslims together in a common political cause. It marked a period of communal harmony and cooperation.
  3. Political Milestone: The pact marked a shift in Indian politics, as the INC and AIML came together in pursuit of constitutional reform and greater Indian participation in governance.
  4. Provincial Autonomy: The reforms introduced as a result of the pact allowed for more provincial autonomy and decision-making power in various regions of India.
  5. Beginning of Broader Cooperation: The success of the Lucknow Pact laid the groundwork for future collaboration between Hindus and Muslims in the struggle for independence, particularly during the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Download Lucknow Pact 1916 Notes PDF in Hindi

Download Lucknow Pact 1916 Notes PDF in English

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By Team Learning Mantras