Linear Momentum of a System of Particles – Class 11 | Chapter – 7 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Linear Momentum of a System of Particles: The linear momentum of a system of particles is a fundamental quantity in physics that describes the motion of the system as a whole. It is defined as the product of the total mass of the system and its velocity:
p = mV
- p is the linear momentum,
- m is the total mass of the system, and
- V is the velocity of the center of mass (COM) of the system.
The linear momentum of a system of particles is a vector quantity, which means that it has both magnitude and direction. The direction of the linear momentum is the same as the direction of the velocity of the COM.
Linear Momentum of a System of Particles
The principle of conservation of linear momentum states that the total linear momentum of an isolated system of particles remains constant if no external forces act on the system. This means that if an isolated system of particles is initially at rest, it will remain at rest, and if it is initially in motion, it will continue to move with a constant velocity. The principle of conservation of linear momentum can be expressed mathematically as:
Σpi = Σpf
- Σpi is the initial total momentum of the system, and
- Σpf is the final total momentum of the system.
The principle of conservation of linear momentum is a fundamental principle in physics and has many applications, such as in the analysis of collisions between particles or objects, rocket propulsion, and the motion of fluids. It is used to predict the motion of systems of particles and to design devices that use momentum to achieve specific objectives.
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