Joints – Class 11 | Chapter – 20 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Joints: A joint generally means a point where two or more things are connected together. In this scenario, it is the point where two bones intersect. Joint means an articulation or in other words, a strong connection that joins the bones, teeth, and cartilage together. It is necessary for all types of movement in the body involving bones. The force generated by muscles is used to carry out movement through various joints. The degree and ease of movement at different joints vary to a lot of different factors. They could be classified based on two different things.

Classification of Joints

There are two ways of classifying joints.  

  • Structural classification

  • Functional classification

Structural Classification of Joints

Bones may be connected to each other by fibrous tissue or cartilage or they may be connected within a fluid-filled cavity. There are three types of joints:

  • Fibrous joints

  • Cartilaginous joints

  • Synovial joints 

  1. Fibrous Joint – In this joint, the bones are connected to each other by dense fibrous connective tissue, usually collagen. There is no joint cavity. The joint does not allow any movement so they are also called fixed or immovable joints. 

Examples: Bones of the skull are joined by fibrous tissue forming a cranium. These joints are called sutures. Another fibrous joint is seen in the gomphosis of teeth which is a joint between teeth and bony sockets.

  1. Cartilaginous Joint – Here the bones are tied to each other with the help of connective tissue called cartilage. It allows limited movement, more than that of a fibrous joint but less than a synovial joint.

Examples: Joints between adjacent vertebrae, the joint between the first rib and sternum (also called synchondrosis).

  1. Synovial Joint – In this joint, there is a fluid-filled cavity called synovial cavity where the two bones are connected to each other. The fluid in the cavity helps in the lubrication of joints and prevents wear and tear of bones due to friction. The two bones at the joint are not directly connected to each other with cartilage or fibrous tissue. This allows the free movement of bones and helps in locomotion. These are the most common types of joints.

Structure of a Synovial Joint 

  • There is a cavity at the joint.

  • The cavity is filled with a fluid called synovial fluid. It lubricates the joint and also nourishes the articular cartilage.

  • The articular bones are covered with a sheath of cartilage called articular cartilage. This prevents friction between bones.

  • The cavity is covered on the outside with fibrous connective tissue forming an articular capsule.

  • On the inner side of the capsule is a lining called the synovial membrane.

  • There is a ligament connecting the bones together outside the joint. It keeps the bones together and prevents their separation.

  • There is another connective tissue called tendon that attaches muscle to the bone at the joint.

  • There are six types of synovial joints:

  • Gliding joint

  • Hinge joint

  • Ball and socket joint

  • Pivot joint

  • Ellipsoid joint

  • Saddle joint  

Functional Classification of Joints

This classification is based on the degree of movement allowed by the joint. These are further divided into three types:

  • Immovable joint/ synarthrosis

  • Slightly movable joint/ amphiarthrosis

  • Freely movable joint/ diarthrosis 

  • Synarthroses – This is an immobile joint so it offers a strong bonding between the articulating bones. These joints do not allow any mobility and are mostly fibrous and cartilaginous joints. They are found at places where they provide protection to internal organs such as the brain and heart.


  • They are found in the fibrous joint of sutures of the cranium which protect the brain.

  • This joint is also present in the manubriosternal joint which is a cartilaginous joint connecting the bones of the sternum to the manubrium. This protects the heart.

  • Amphiarthroses – These joints allow little mobility and are mostly cartilaginous joints. These are found in joints between vertebrae. In between two vertebrae, there is a gap that is filled with cartilage called the intervertebral disc. This disc not only connects the two vertebrae but also allows some movement between the vertebral bones. Because of these joints, the entire vertebral column can move. 

  • Diarthroses – These are freely movable joints and are synovial joints. They provide maximum mobility to body parts and are mostly found in the limbs. Depending on the number of axes of motion provided by these joints, they are further classified as follows:

  • Uniaxial

  • Biaxial

  • Multiaxial

  • Uniaxial joint – This joint allows movement in only one plane.

Example: Elbow joint which allows only bending and straightening. 

  • Biaxial joint – This joint allows motion in two planes.

Example: Joint of the knuckles where the joint allows movement in two axes; one bending and straightening of fingers and second spreading of fingers. 

  • Multiaxial joint – This joint allows motion in many directions; along all three axes.

Example: Shoulder and the hip joint where the limbs can move in forward-backward direction, sideways, and can also rotate.

Types of Joints in the Human Body

  • Gliding Joint – This is also called plane joint as the bones are of the same size and are mostly flat.  The bones slide past each other in a gliding manner. It is a non-axial joint as there is no rotatory motion around any axis.

          Example: The joints between the carpals of the wrist and the tarsals of the foot.

  • Hinge Joint – This joint can be compared to a door hinge where the movement is allowed in only one direction. It is a uniaxial joint in which the cylindrical end of a bone fits into the trough of adjoining bone. This is the most common synovial joint.

          Example: The joint in the elbow, knee, and ankle.

  • Ball and Socket Joint – This joint allows maximum movement in all directions hence called multi axial joint. It also allows rotatory movement. The head of one bone fits into the depression of another bone like a ball fits into a socket.

          Example: The joints in the hip and shoulder.

  • Pivot Joint – In this joint, the bones rotate around a single axis. The rounded end of one bone moves within a ring-like structure formed by the other bone along with a ligament at the joint. This joint is a uniaxial joint as it allows movement on only one axis.

Example: The joint between the first (atlas) and second (axis) cervical vertebrae is a pivot joint. It allows the head to turn from side to side.

  • Ellipsoid Joint – This is also called condyloid joint. This joint allows all sorts of movements like straightening, bending, side to side, and rotatory. It is a biaxial joint as it allows movement in two planes. Oval end of one bone which is convex fits into the depression of the concave end of another bone.

          Example: Joint between the radius of forearm and bones of the wrist.

  • Saddle Joint – In this joint one bone is turned inward and the other is turned outward. The joint looks as if there is a rider on a saddle. This joint allows all sorts of movements like straightening, bending, side to side, and rotation. It is also a biaxial joint.

          Example: The joint between thumb and palm.

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By Team Learning Mantras