Jallianwala Bagh Massacre – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre remains a symbol of British colonial brutality and the sacrifices made by Indians in their struggle for freedom. The memorial at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar stands as a reminder of the tragedy and a symbol of India’s quest for independence and justice.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, was a tragic and brutal event that occurred on April 13, 1919, in the city of Amritsar in the Punjab region of British India. The massacre was a turning point in India’s struggle for independence and had a profound impact on the Indian political landscape. Here are the key details and consequences of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:


  • In the aftermath of World War I, there was growing discontent and political unrest in India due to repressive British policies and the aftermath of the Rowlatt Act of 1919, which authorized the detention of Indians without trial.
  • The Indian National Congress and other political organizations called for protests against these policies and the repressive measures of the British government.

The Massacre:

  • On April 13, 1919, thousands of Indians gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, a public garden in Amritsar, to protest the Rowlatt Act and other oppressive laws.
  • Brigadier General Reginald Dyer, who was in charge of the British troops in the area, arrived with a contingent of fifty soldiers and ordered them to open fire on the unarmed, peaceful crowd.
  • The troops continued firing for about ten minutes, until they ran out of ammunition. It is estimated that hundreds of Indians were killed, and over a thousand were wounded.

Consequences and Impact:

  • The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was met with widespread shock and outrage, not only in India but also in Britain and around the world. It exposed the brutality of British colonial rule in India.
  • Public Protests: The massacre led to mass protests and condemnation across India. It galvanized public opinion against British rule and strengthened the demand for self-governance.
  • Gandhi’s Response: Mahatma Gandhi, who was already a prominent leader in the Indian freedom movement, intensified his efforts and called for non-cooperation with the British government.
  • Hunter Commission: The British government set up the Hunter Commission to investigate the massacre. While the commission criticized Dyer’s actions, he was not prosecuted.
  • Martial Law: In the aftermath of the massacre, the British authorities imposed martial law in Amritsar and implemented other repressive measures, further alienating the Indian population.
  • Impact on Communal Harmony: The massacre strained Hindu-Muslim relations, as both communities were deeply affected by the tragedy. It highlighted the need for communal harmony in the freedom struggle.
  • Influence on Future Movements: The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre served as a rallying point for subsequent mass movements, including the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • End of British Rule: The events surrounding the massacre, along with other factors, contributed to the growing pressure on the British government, leading to India’s eventual independence in 1947.

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By Team Learning Mantras