Inheritance of One Gene – Class 12 | Chapter – 5 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Inheritance of One Gene: Inheritance of one gene is defined as the study of the inheritance of a single gene (one pair of alleles) controlling a single character. It is also called monohybrid cross or monogenic inheritance.

Gregor Mendel solved the genetics enigma in 19th century. He experimented with plants of peas by growing them and examining the inheritance pattern at various phases of generation. Mendel is known as the Father of Genetics. He suggested three laws:

Terminologies Associated with Inheritance of One Gene

  1. Inheritance: It is defined as the process of transfer of the genetic material from the parents to the offspring.
  2. Gene: It is defined as the basic physical and functional unit of heredity that codes for certain proteins.
  3. Alleles: It is defined as alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus on a chromosome.
  4. Homozygous condition: It is the condition where an organism has two identical alleles of a particular gene.
  5. Heterozygous condition: It is defined as a condition where an organism has two different alleles of a particular gene.
  6. Monohybrid cross: It is a cross carried out to study the inheritance of one gene between two organisms having different alleles of the same gene.

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By Team Learning Mantras