Industrial Effluent and Domestic Sewage – Class 12 | Chapter – 16 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Industrial Effluent and Domestic Sewage: Industrial effluent refers to waste water produced by industrial processes, which often contains toxic chemicals and pollutants that can harm the environment and human health. Domestic sewage, on the other hand, refers to waste water generated by households, which typically contains organic matter, nutrients, and pathogens. Both types of waste water need to be treated to remove harmful substances before they can be safely discharged into the environment.

Industrial Effluent and Domestic Sewage

Industrial effluent

  • Waste water generated from various industries is called industrial effluent.
  • In general various toxic chemicals alike acid, alkali, coloring agents etc are main pollutants. Microorganisms and organic matters are usually lower in industrial effluent.
  • Actual composition and characteristics of industrial effluent depends on type of industry and nature of raw materials of industry.
  • Pollutants in industries are generated during processing of raw materials and manufacturing of products.


  • Wastewater generated from residential area is called sewage.
  • Sewage is extremely unpleasant in odor which contains large number of microorganisms, organic matters and other pollutants.
  • Pure domestic sewage consists of discharge from bathroom, toilet, kitchen and laboratories. However sometimes industrial effluent are also mixed with sewage.
  • Actual composition of sewage depends on type, condition and age of sewage.
  • In general sewage contains:
    • Sullage: it is waste water generated from kitchen, bathroom, laboratories etc
    • Human and animal excreta from toilet and animal farm
    • Run-off waste water from street during raining
    • Some industrial effluent

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