Human Endocrine System – Class 11 | Chapter – 22 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Human Endocrine System: The endocrine system is a network of glands and organs located throughout the body. It’s similar to the nervous system in that it plays a vital role in controlling and regulating many of the body’s functions.


Organs in Human Endocrine System

The glands of Human Endocrine System are where hormones are produced, stored, and released. Each gland produces one or more hormones, which go on to target specific organs and tissues in the body.

Human Endocrine System

The glands of the Human Endocrine System include the:

  • Hypothalamus. While some people don’t consider it a gland, the hypothalamus produces multiple hormones that control the pituitary gland. It’s also involved in regulating many functions, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, and appetite. It can also regulate the function of other endocrine glands.
  • Pituitary. The pituitary gland is located below the hypothalamus. The hormones it produces affect growth and reproduction. They can also control the function of other endocrine glands.
  • Pineal. This gland is found in the middle of your brain. It’s important for your sleep-wake cycles.
  • Thyroid. The thyroid gland is located in the front part of your neck. It’s very important for metabolism.
  • Parathyroid. Also located in the front of your neck, the parathyroid gland is important for maintaining control of calcium levels in your bones and blood.
  • Thymus. Located in the upper torso, the thymus is active until puberty and produces hormones that are important for the development of a type of white blood cell called a T cell.
  • Adrenal. One adrenal gland can be found on top of each kidney. These glands produce hormones that are important for regulating functions such as blood pressure, heart rate, and stress response.
  • Pancreas. The pancreas is located in your abdomen behind your stomach. Its endocrine function involves controlling blood sugar levels.

Harmones of Human Endocrine System

Hormones are the chemicals the endocrine system uses to send messages to organs and tissue throughout the body. Once released into the bloodstream, hormones travel to their target organ or tissue, which has receptors that recognize and react to the hormone.

Below are some examples of hormones that are produced by Human Endocrine System.

Hormone Secreting gland(s) Function
adrenaline adrenal increases blood pressure, heart rate, and metabolism in reaction to stress
aldosterone adrenal controls the body’s salt and water balance
cortisol adrenal plays a role in stress response
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) adrenal aids in production of body odor and growth of body hair during puberty
estrogen ovary works to regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain pregnancy, and develop female sex characteristics; aids in sperm production
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) pituitary controls the production of eggs and sperm
glucagon pancreas helps increase levels of blood glucose (blood sugar)
insulin pancreas helps reduce your blood glucose levels
luteinizing hormone (LH) pituitary controls estrogen and testosterone production as well as ovulation
melatonin pineal controls sleep-wake cycles
oxytocin pituitary helps with lactation, childbirth, and mother-child bonding
parathyroid hormone parathyroid controls calcium levels in bones and blood
progesterone ovary helps prepare the body for pregnancy when an egg is fertilized
prolactin pituitary promotes breast-milk production
testosterone ovary, teste, adrenal contributes to sex drive and body density in males and females as well as development of male sex characteristics
thyroid hormone thyroid helps control several body functions, including the rate of metabolism and energy levels


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By Team Learning Mantras