Galvanic Cells – Class 12 | Chapter – 3 | Chemistry Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Galvanic Cells: Galvanic cells, also known as voltaic cells, are electrochemical cells that use spontaneous redox reactions to generate electrical energy. In a galvanic cell, chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. The galvanic cell consists of two half-cells, each containing an electrode and an electrolyte solution. One half-cell contains an oxidizing agent, and the other half-cell contains a reducing agent. The two half-cells are connected by a wire, and the electrons flow from the anode to the cathode through the wire.
Types of Galvanic Cells
Galvanic cell, also known as electrochemical cells or voltaic cells, are devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. There are several types of galvanic cells, including:
- Daniell Cell: This is one of the earliest types of galvanic cells and is made up of a copper electrode and a zinc electrode, with a salt bridge between them.
- Leclanché Cell: This type of cell is commonly used in portable electronics and consists of a carbon electrode and a zinc electrode immersed in a solution of ammonium chloride.
- Grove Cell: This cell uses nitric acid as the oxidizing agent and sulfuric acid as the reducing agent.
- Fuel Cells: Fuel cells are a type of galvanic cell that use hydrogen gas as the fuel and oxygen gas as the oxidizing agent to produce electrical energy.
- Lithium-Ion Cell: This type of cell is commonly used in rechargeable batteries and consists of a lithium metal oxide cathode, a carbon anode, and an electrolyte solution.
- Zinc-Carbon Cell: This is a common type of primary cell that uses zinc as the anode and carbon as the cathode, with an electrolyte solution of ammonium chloride and zinc chloride.
- Silver-Oxide Cell: This type of cell is commonly used in watches and other small electronic devices and uses silver oxide as the cathode and zinc as the anode.
- Nickel-Cadmium Cell: This is a type of rechargeable battery that uses nickel oxide hydroxide as the cathode, cadmium as the anode, and an alkaline electrolyte solution.
Applications of Galvanic Cells
Galvanic cell, also known as voltaic cells, have numerous applications in our daily lives and in various industries. Here are some of the common applications of galvanic cells:
- Batteries: Galvanic cell are used in batteries to power various electronic devices such as calculators, watches, smartphones, and laptops.
- Corrosion protection: Galvanic cells are used to protect metals from corrosion. For example, sacrificial anodes made of more active metals such as zinc or magnesium are used to protect steel structures from corrosion.
- Electroplating: Galvanic cells are used in electroplating to coat metals with a thin layer of another metal, for example, copper plating on steel.
- Energy production: Galvanic cells are used to produce electricity from renewable sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy.
- Sensors: Galvanic cells are used in sensors to detect and measure the concentration of various chemical species such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and glucose.
- Medical applications: Galvanic cells are used in implantable medical devices such as pacemakers and defibrillators to power these devices and regulate the electrical impulses in the body.
- Environmental monitoring: Galvanic cells are used in environmental monitoring to measure the concentration of pollutants in air and water.
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