Ferromagnetism – Class 12 | Chapter – 5 | Physics Short Notes Series PDF for NEET & JEE
Ferromagnetism: Ferromagnetism is a strong type of magnetism exhibited by materials that have a permanent magnetization, large magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis, magnetic domains, and occur in materials that have a net magnetic moment.
Properties of Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism is a type of magnetism exhibited by materials that have a strong attraction to a magnetic field. Here are some properties of ferromagnetism:
- Permanent magnetization: Ferromagnetic materials have a permanent magnetization that is retained even in the absence of an external magnetic field. This is due to the alignment of the magnetic moments of the atoms or ions in the material.
- Large magnetic susceptibility: Ferromagnetic materials have a large magnetic susceptibility, which means that they are strongly attracted to a magnetic field.
- Hysteresis: The magnetization of a ferromagnetic material lags behind the applied magnetic field, resulting in a hysteresis loop when the magnetic field is cycled.
- Magnetic domains: Ferromagnetic materials consist of many small regions called magnetic domains, in which the atomic magnetic moments are aligned. The domains are randomly oriented in the absence of an external magnetic field, but they align in the direction of the external magnetic field when it is applied.
- Curie temperature: Above a certain temperature called the Curie temperature, ferromagnetic materials lose their magnetization and become paramagnetic.
Occurrence: Ferromagnetism occurs in materials that have a net magnetic moment due to the alignment of their atomic magnetic moments. Examples include iron, cobalt, nickel, and some alloys.
Examples of Ferromagnetism
Ferromagnetism is the property of certain materials to become strongly magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, and to retain their magnetization when the external field is removed. Some examples of ferromagnetic materials are iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloys, such as steel. Other examples include rare-earth magnets, such as neodymium magnets, which are used in various applications, such as electric motors, hard disk drives, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines.
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