Female Reproductive System – Class 12 | Chapter – 3 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Female Reproductive System: The female reproductive system is involved in sexual activity and fertility, and includes organs such as the uterus (womb), ovaries, fallopian tubes and vagina, as well as hormones. During menopause, the female reproductive system gradually stops making the female hormones necessary for the reproductive cycle to work. At this point, menstrual cycles can become irregular and eventually stop. One year after menstrual cycles stop, the woman is considered to be menopausal.

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  • The female accessory ducts are constituted by the oviducts, vagina and uterus.
  • The section closer to the ovary is funnel-shaped infundibulum that possesses the fimbriae – finger-like projections facilitating the assimilation of ovum post ovulation.
  • The infundibulum directs to a wider section of oviduct known as ampulla.
  • The last section of the oviduct, isthmus, has a narrow lumen joining the uterus.
  • Uterus is also known as the womb.
  • The cervical cavity is known as the cervical canal which goes onto form the birth canal along with the vagina.
  • Female external genitalia comprises – mons pubis, labia minora, labia majora, clitoris and hymen.

Female Reproductive System

Parts of Female Reproductive System

  • Vagina: The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal.
  • Uterus (womb): The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the home to a developing fetus. The uterus is divided into two parts: the cervix, which is the lower part that opens into the vagina, and the main body of the uterus, called the corpus. The corpus can easily expand to hold a developing baby. A canal through the cervix allows sperm to enter and menstrual blood to exit.
  • Ovaries: The ovaries are small, oval-shaped glands that are located on either side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones.
  • Fallopian tubes: These are narrow tubes that are attached to the upper part of the uterus and serve as pathways for the ova (egg cells) to travel from the ovaries to the uterus. Fertilization of an egg by a sperm normally occurs in the fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then moves to the uterus, where it implants to the uterine lining.

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