Factors Affecting Human Endocrine System – Class 11 | Chapter – 22 | Biology Short Notes Series PDF

Factors Affecting Human Endocrine System: The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce and release hormones that help control many important body functions, including the body’s ability to change calories into energy that powers cells and organs. The endocrine system influences how your heart beats, how your bones and tissues grow, even your ability to make a baby. It plays a vital role in whether or not you develop diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, sexual dysfunction, and a host of other hormone-related disorders.

Factors Affecting Human Endocrine System

Endocrine disorders are typically grouped into two categories:

  • Endocrine disease that results when a gland produces too much or too little of an endocrine hormone, called a hormone imbalance.
  • Endocrine disease due to the development of lesions (such as nodules or tumors) in the endocrine system, which may or may not affect hormone levels.

Common Endocrine Disorders

There are many different types of endocrine disorders. Some examples include the following.


Diabetes is a condition that causes high blood glucose levelsTrusted Source due to the body being unable to either produce or use insulin sufficiently to regulate glucose. Two of the most common types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2.

Diabetes causes symptoms that include:

  • increased thirst and urination
  • increased hunger
  • unexpected weight changes
  • persistent sores
  • numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
  • tiredness
  • blurry vision

Most treatments for diabetes include a combination of lifestyle factors and medications. People with diabetes may require regular insulin medications to help regulate their glucose levels.


Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too many hormonesTrusted Source. The condition has several possible causes, including inflammation of the thyroid gland or Graves’ disease.

Thyroid hormones help regulate energy use throughout the body. This means that the condition can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

  • a rapid or irregular heartbeat
  • difficulty sleeping
  • irritability and nervousness
  • tiredness
  • poor temperature regulation
  • frequent bowel movements
  • weight loss with an increased appetite
  • a goiter, which is a growth in the neck

Treatments for hyperthyroidism depend on its cause, the symptoms, and the person’s overall health. They could include medications, radioiodine therapy, or thyroid surgery.


Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid does notTrusted Source produce enough hormones. It is the most common thyroid disorder, and it can cause bodily processes to slow down.

Symptoms may include:

  • tiredness
  • sensitivity to cold
  • slow speech
  • droopy eyelids and facial swelling
  • dry skin
  • a slow heartbeat
  • muscle cramps
  • confusion
  • constipation
  • weight gain
  • tingling in the hands

A doctor may suggest treating the condition with additional doses of thyroid hormones to help manage the symptoms.

Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome occurs when there is an excess of the hormone cortisol. Cortisol helps the body respond to stress, regulate metabolic processes, and maintain blood pressure.

Too much cortisol in people with Cushing’s syndrome can cause symptoms that include:

  • weight gain
  • thin arms and legs
  • a rounded face
  • a fatty lump between the shoulders
  • excessive hair growth
  • muscle weakness
  • blurry vision
  • decreased fertility and sex drive
  • tiredness
  • easy bruising and purple stretch marks

The most commonTrusted Source treatment for Cushing’s syndrome is surgery to remove a tumor that is causing the problem.


Acromegaly occurs when the body makes too much growth hormone. It can result in the unusual growth of bones, organs, and other tissues around the body. For example, it can cause:

  • swollen hands and feet
  • the growth of facial features
  • bone changes, such as a protruding jaw
  • thick, dry skin
  • sweating and body odor
  • a deeper voice

Treatments could include surgery, medications, and radiation therapy to reduce the tumor causing the condition.

Biology Quiz & Notes Physics Quiz & Notes Chemistry Quiz & Notes

Follow on Facebook

By Team Learning Mantras