Extremist Period in Indian National Movement – Modern Indian History Notes PDF in English & Hindi for all Competitive Exams

Extremist Period in Indian National Movement: The Extremist Period, while marked by a more militant approach, played a crucial role in building a spirit of resistance and unity among Indians. It laid the groundwork for future, more coordinated and powerful movements that ultimately led to India’s independence in 1947.

Extremist Period in Indian National Movement

The Extremist Period in the Indian National Movement refers to a phase of more assertive and radical political activism within the Indian National Congress (INC) during the early 20th century. This phase, which followed the Moderate Phase, was marked by a shift towards more confrontational and militant methods in the struggle for Indian self-rule. Here are the key aspects of the Extremist Period in the Indian National Movement:

Emergence of Extremist Leaders:

  1. Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Tilak, popularly known as “Lokmanya,” was one of the prominent Extremist leaders. He advocated the use of mass mobilization and civil disobedience as tools for political protest.
  2. Bipin Chandra Pal: Pal was another influential Extremist leader who worked alongside Tilak. He was a strong advocate for Swadeshi (boycott of foreign goods) and a vocal critic of British colonial policies.

Key Features:

  1. Shift towards Militancy: The Extremists believed that the Moderates’ approach of constitutional negotiations and petitions had not yielded substantial results. They called for a more militant and direct approach to challenge British rule.
  2. Swadeshi Movement: The Extremists launched the Swadeshi Movement, which encouraged Indians to boycott foreign goods and promote the use of indigenous products. The movement aimed to weaken the economic foundations of British rule in India.
  3. Mass Mobilization: Extremist leaders believed in the power of the masses. They organized mass protests, rallies, and public demonstrations to build public support and create a sense of unity among Indians.
  4. Promotion of Indigenous Culture: Extremist leaders emphasized the importance of Indian culture and heritage as a means of promoting national pride and unity.
  5. Civil Disobedience: While not as prominently associated with civil disobedience as later leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, the Extremists were not averse to using non-cooperation and civil resistance as means of protest.
  6. Expansion of the INC: The Extremists played a role in expanding the reach of the Indian National Congress, drawing more people into the fold of the independence movement.

Impact and Outcomes:

  1. The Extremist Period was a precursor to the more comprehensive Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movements that would follow in the 1920s and 1930s.
  2. The Extremist leaders played a pivotal role in radicalizing the Indian masses and preparing them for more significant political mobilization.

Decline and Transition:

  1. The Extremist Phase eventually gave way to a more unified and mass-based struggle under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, who combined elements of Extremism with his philosophy of nonviolence and non-cooperation.
  2. Gandhi’s leadership marked a transition from the Extremist Period to the Gandhian Phase of the Indian National Movement.

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By Team Learning Mantras